01 Juni, 2010

Jenis-jenis Ternak Sapi

Africander

Also Known As: Afrikaner (Afrik.)

The Africander is a native South African breed. It belongs to the Sanga type and is used primarily for meat production. The breed is usually red with long lateral horns. Sanga type cattle, in huge herds, were owned by the Hottentots when the Dutch established the Cape Colony in 1652. The animals were obtained by the colonists who improved them for use as draft animals. It was Africander oxen that drew the wagons which carried Boer farmers and families on the Great Trek of 1835 – 36 from the Cape of Good Hope to the Orange Free State, Natal and the Transvaal to escape British rule. the word trek is originally Afrikaans, meaning draft.

The Africander is South Africa’s most popular native breed, comprising 30% of the cattle population. Africander cattle exhibit good resistance to heat, a high level of tick resistance, quiet temperament and a satisfactorily high level of fertility under harsh conditions. Mature cows weigh approximately 525 to 600 kg (1150 – 1350 pounds) and bulls weigh 750 to 1000 kg (1650 – 2200 pounds).

The Africander was used with Shorthorn in developing the Bonsmara breed and with Holstein in creating the Drakensberger.

Africander in Australia

The small numbers of Africander cattle in Australia have developed from a relatively small base importation from America. As it belongs to the Bos indicus group, the Africander is mainly found in the hot-tropical-humid and sub-tropical-dry areas of Australia.

The Africander tends to late maturity and yields a carcass with comparatively low fat cover. Through the use of bulls and frozen semen, the Africander has been used in up-grading indigenous cattle in tropical countries as it passes on fertility, docility and excellent weight gains to progeny.

Reference:

Genus Bos: Cattle Breeds of the World, 1985, MSO-AGVET (Merck & Co., Inc.), Rahway, N.J.

Mason, I.L. 1996. A World Dictionary of Livestock Breeds, Types and Varieties. Fourth Edition. C.A.B International. 273 pp.

Handbook of Australian Livestock, Australian Meat & Livestock Corporation,1989, 3rd Edition

Photographs:
The Afrikaner Cattle Breeders Societ of South Africa, Bus/Box 979 Bloemfontein 9300, South Africa

Handbook of Australian Livestock, Australian Meat & Livestock Corporation,1989, 3rd Edition



Albères

Also known by: Massanaise (French)

This is a semi-feral breed found in the Albères Mountains and eastern Pyrenees of France and Spain.

It is black, blond or brown in coloration and the breed is rare.

Reference:

Mason, I.L. 1996. A World Dictionary of Livestock Breeds, Types and Varieties. Fourth Edition. C.A.B International. 273 pp.

We are currently searching for additional information of this breed. Submission information.

Photographs:

Dr. Jesus Piedrafita, Facultat de Veterinària, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, SPAIN



Australian Braford


The Australian Braford breed was developed in Queensland in the period between 1946 and 1952. It is now a stabilized breed with approximately 50 percent Hereford and 50 percent Brahman genetic background.

The breed carries many of the Brahman characteristics, such as a hump, loose skin, short coat, etc. whilst its color markings are those of the Hereford. It is heat resistant and relatively tick tolerant, and performs will in harsh tropical conditions. Equally, the breed is building an excellent reputation in the more temperate areas of Australia.

It is a little later in its maturity level than the British breeds. Hence it produces good yearling and steer carcasses that have a minimum of waste.

The Braford is mainly found in Queensland and NSW, although smaller numbers are found in other states. Exports have already occurred, mainly to Asian countries. Numbers of commercial cattle are available, as well as stud bulls and females.

Australian Braford Society 122 Denham Street (PO Box 749) ROCKHAMPTON Qld 4700 Australia Phone +61 7 4927 5196 Fax +61 7 4927 5708 e-mail: braford@rocknet.net.au

References:

Handbook of Australian Livestock, Australian Meat & Livestock Corporation,1989, 3rd Edition

Photographs:

Handbook of Australian Livestock, Australian Meat & Livestock Corporation,1989, 3rd Edition

Australian Friesian Sahiwal

This breed is being developed in Australia by the Queensland Government for use in the tropical areas. The breed was evolved using the Sahiwal, a dairy strain of Zebu from Pakistan, and the Australian Holstein-Friesian.

Since the 1960’s when research work began on this breed, notable progress has been achieved towards the objective of combining tick resistance and heat tolerance with reliable milk production and fertility. It has now been extensively tested in the tropical and sub-tropical areas of Australia. Under these conditions, it outperforms the Holstein Friesian by approximately 15 percent.

Average milk yield is 3,000 liters for mature cows. Milk quality is good – protein level is 3.4 percent and butterfat is approximately four percent.
Reference:

Handbook of Australian Livestock, Australian Meat & Livestock Corporation,1989, 3rd Edition
Photographs:

Handbook of Australian Livestock, Australian Meat & Livestock Corporation,1989, 3rd Edition

Australian Milking Zebu

In an effort to overcome the problems of traditional dairy breeds performing at reduced levels under hot, humid and tick-infested conditions, the Commonwealth Scientific & Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO) developed the Australian Milking Zebu (AMZ). This began in the mid-1950’s with the introduction of Pakistani Sahiwal and Red Sindhi dairy cattle, which were mated initially to high-producing Jersey cattle. Later, some infusion of Illawarra, Guernsey and Holstein-Friesian bloodlines occurred.

Careful interbreeding of the half-bred progeny, combined with strict selection criteria, have resulted in the AMZ breed. Selection is for heat tolerance, tick resistance and milk production alone.

Mature purebred AMZ cows produce an average of 2,700 liters of milk over a 12 month period, while AMZ cross Friesian cows average more than this. Quality of milk is very high and protein level is approximately 3.5 to 4 percent.

The AMZ carries the color markings and general shape of the Jersey, but also shows the tropical influence of the Sahiwal and Red Sindhi breeds through the ability to sweat and discard ticks from a highly mobile, loose skin.
Reference:

Handbook of Australian Livestock, Australian Meat & Livestock Corporation,1989, 3rd Edition
Photographs:

Handbook of Australian Livestock, Australian Meat & Livestock Corporation,1989, 3rd Edition

Ayrshire

The Ayrshire breed originated in the County of Ayr in Scotland, prior to 1800. The county is divided into the three districts of Cunningham, in the more northern part, Kyle, which lies in the center, and Carrick, which forms the southern part of the county. During its development, it was referred to first as the Dunlop, then the Cunningham, and finally, the Ayrshire. How the different strains of cattle were crossed to form the breed known as Ayrshire is not exactly known. There is good evidence that several breeds were crossed with native cattle to create the foundation animals of the breed. In Agriculture, Ancient and Modern, published in 1866, Samual Copland describes the native cattle of the region as “diminutive in size, ill-fed, and bad milkers.” Prior to 1800 many of the cattle of Ayrshire were black, although by 1775 browns and mottled colors started to appear.

Probably the improvement of the native stock began around 1750 when it was crossed with other breeds. The principal blood used in improvement was that of the Teeswater stock, which later was largely used in the formation of the Shorthorn breed in England. A majority of the breeding in the Teeswater was from Dutch or Flemish cattle that also were used in the formation of the Holstein breed. Animals from the West Highland and improved Shorthorn were to improved the original Ayrshire stock. There is also considerable evidence that cattle from the Channel Islands were used in the improvement of the cattle of Ayr. It is to the credit of the Scottish farmers that they used any available improved stock that they felt would improve their cattle for practical use in their area.

Regardless of the details of origin, the early breeders carefully crossed and selected the various strains of cattle to develop the cow we now know as the Ayrshire. She was well suited for the land and climate in Ayr. She was an efficient grazer; noted for her vigor and efficiency of milk production. She was especially noted for the superior shape and quality of her udder. The composition of her milk made it ideally suited for the production of butter and cheese by the early Scottish dairymen.

Breed Characteristics

Ayrshires are red and white, and purebred Ayrshires only produce red and white offspring. Actually, the red color is a reddish-brown mahogany that varies in shade from very light to very dark. On some bulls, the mahogany color is so dark that it appears almost black in contrast to the white. There is no discrimination or registry restriction on color patterns for Ayrshires. The color markings vary from nearly all red to nearly all white. The spots are usually very jagged at the edges and often small and scattered over the entire body of the cow. Usually, the spots are distinct, with a break between the red and the white hair. Some Ayrshires exhibit a speckled pattern of red pigmentation on the skin covered by white hair. Brindle and roan color patterns were once more common in Ayrshires, but these patterns are rare today.

For many years, the Ayrshire horns were a hallmark of the breed. These horns often reached a foot or more in length. When properly trained, they gracefully curved out, and then up and slightly back. When polished for the show ring, the Ayrshire horns were a spectacular sight. Unfortunately, the horns were not very practical, and today almost all Ayrshires are dehorned as calves.

Ayrshires are medium-sized cattle and should weigh over 1200 pounds at maturity. They are strong, rugged cattle that adapt to all management systems including group handling on dairy farms with free stalls and milking parlors. Ayrshires excel in udder conformation and are not subject to excessive foot and leg problems. Few other breeds can match the ability of the Ayrshire to rustle and forage for themselves under adverse feeding or climatic conditions. Ayrshire cattle will do better under pasture conditions than will the other major dairy breeds and , when pastures are poor, they need less grain to keep them in air condition (C.H. Eckles, Dairy Cattle and Milk Production, 1923). The ruggedness of the terrain and the unfavorable climatic conditions of their native land led to the selection for those points of hardiness that adapt them to less than ideal conditions. These traits make Ayrshires outstanding commercial dairy cattle.

Other traits that make Ayrshires attractive to the commercial dairyman include the vigor of Ayrshire calves. They are strong and easy to raise. Ayrshires do no possess the yellow tallow characteristic that would reduce carcass value, so Ayrshire bull calves can be profitably raised as steers.

The Ayrshire is a moderate butterfat breed. The actual average of all Ayrshires on Official DHIR test is over 12,000 pounds of milk with a 3.9% test. Ayrshires respond to good management and feeding practices and individual Ayrshire herds average as high as 17,000 pounds of milk and 700 pounds of butterfat.

Top producing Ayrshires regularly exceed 20,000 pounds of milk in their lactations. The current world record for Ayrshire is held by Lette Farms Betty’s Ida. In 305 days, on twice-a-day milking, she produced 37,170 pounds of milk and 1592 pounds of fat. The Ayrshire Breeders’ Association does not officially recognize records in excess of 305 days, but one Ayrshire has produced over 41,000 pounds of milk and 1800 pounds of butterfat in 365 days.

Development in the United States

The first importations of Ayrshires to the United States was believed to have been made by Henry W. Hills, of Windsor, Connecticut, around 1822. Farmers in New England needed a dairy cow that would graze the pastures of their rough, rocky farms and tolerate the cold, often inhospitable winters. In many ways, the environment in New England was very similar to the Ayrshire’s native Scotland, and she thrived in her new home. Even today, the Ayrshire is very popular in New England, but her popularity has spread and the Ayrshire herds are now located in every part of the United States including the Deep South. The largest numbers of Ayrshires are registered each year in New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa and Vermont.

During the early part of the Twentieth Century, Ayrshires were noted for their extremely good type. Old photographs of Ayrshire cattle confirm this fact. To demonstrate their hardiness, the Ayrshire Breeders’ Association staged one of the most spectacular promotional events ever conducted by a dairy breed registry association. In 1929, two Ayrshire cows named Tomboy and Alice, were literally walked from the association headquarters at Brandon, Vermont, to the National Dairy Show at St. Louis, Missouri. Both cows not only survived the trip, but calved normally and went on to produce outstanding milk records of the time.

During the Twenties and Thirties, many Ayrshire herds were established near cities. Some of these farms bottled and distributed their own milk. In the late Thirties, the Ayrshire Breeders’ Association established the Approved Ayrshire Milk program. The program served the purpose of promoting Ayrshires by promoting their milk. To qualify, a herd had to be comprised entirely of Ayrshires, and the herd owner had to maintain the highest health standards. Promotional materials from the time stated that Ayrshire milk had a better flavor. It also emphasized the unique composition of Ayrshire milk and made it more healthful, especially for children and babies. The promotional literature recommended that mothers give their children Ayrshire milk to be sure they grew up to be strong and healthy.

Milk marketing, like herd management, has changed and the Approved Ayrshire Milk program is no longer in operation. However it is interesting to note that the promotional themes of the Approved Ayrshire Milk program were very similar to those of modern milk marketing campaigns.

The development of the Ayrshire breed is a story of dedicated people as much as it is of great dairy cattle. Farmer breeders, whose livelihood depend on their cattle, along with wealthy hobby farmers and talented and dedicated herd managers all share equal credit for their contributions to the development of the Ayrshire breed. The Ayrshire cow is universally recognized as one of the most beautiful of the dairy cattle breeds, but much more important is the fact that she has been bred and developed to be a useful and profitable dairy cow. With proper feeding and management, the Ayrshire will produce at a profitable level for her owner. By using the modern breed improvement tools of DHI or DHIR testing, type traits appraisal, and artificial insemination, an Ayrshire breeder can be sure of breeding better Ayrshires to meet the demands of the modern dairy industry.
Ayrshire Associations and Registries
References:

Briggs, H.M. & D.M. Briggs. Modern Breeds of Livestock. Fourth Edition. Macmillan Publishing Co. 1980

Promotional materials. Ayrshire Breeders’ Association, 1224 Alton Darby Creek Rd., Suite B
Columbus, OH 43228

Photographs:

Ayrshire Breeders’ Association

Hoards Dairyman, Fort Atkinson, WI

Beefmaster

Beefmaster cattle have been developed by the Lasater Ranch then headquartered in Texas. The breeding program leading to their establishment was started by Ed C. Lasater in 1908, when he purchased Brahman bulls to use on his commercial herd of Hereford and Shorthorn cattle. The first of these bulls that he used were principally of Gir breeding, although some of the Nelore breed were also used. In 1925 he introduced Guzerat blood into the herd.

Mr. Lasater also developed a registered Hereford herd in which the cattle had red circles around each eye. In both his Brahman and Hereford breeding, milk production was stressed. Following his death in 1930, the breeding operations came under the direction of his son, Tom Lasater, who began to combine the breeding of the Brahman and Hereford cattle and also used some registered Shorthorn bulls. After making crosses of Brahman-Hereford and Brahman-Shorthorn, he felt a superior animal had been produced and called the cattle “Beefmaster.” The exact pedigree of the foundation cattle was not known. The breeding operations were carried on in multiple-sire herds nd rigid culling was practiced. The Lasater Ranch estimates that modern Beefmaster have slightly less than one-half Brahman blood and slightly more than one-fourth of Hereford and Shorthorn breeding.

The cattle were handled under range conditions that were often adverse, and a culling program was started based on disposition, fertility, weight, conformation, hardiness and milk production. Stress was placed on the production of beef. No selection has been made to characteristics that do not affect the carcass, such as horns, hide or color.

The Lasater Ranch breeding program provided an interesting example of the use of mass selection in reaching a goal. Critics should recall that other breeds have been established in a similar way – a blending of breeding followed by selection for economically important points Uniformity in many breeds has been achieved only after many generations of selection.

The original concepts of Tom Lasater in developing Beefmaster cattle have continued. Selection continues for those points which were originally used by Mr. Lasater and are now known as the Six Essentials – Weight, Conformation, Milking Ability, Fertility, Hardiness and Disposition. Considerable progress has been made in selecting cattle that give very satisfactory levels of production under the practical and often severe range conditions. Satisfaction by ranchers and creditable performance in feedlots indicate the value of stressing the important utilitarian points in developing breeding herds.
Beefmaster Associations and Registries
References:

Briggs, H.M. & D.M. Briggs. Modern Breeds of Livestock. Fourth Edition. Macmillan Publishing Co. 1980

Promotional materials. Beefmaster Breeders United, San Antonio, Texas

Photographs:

Beefmaster Breeders United, San Antonio, Texas

Ernie Gill

Braford

Brafords, like most recognized breeds today, were born of necessity – the necessity to consistently and efficiently produce a uniform product in specific production environments. Working with a base of Brahman cows that were primarily Partin and Hudgins breeding, Alto Adams Jr. began using Hereford bulls on his St. Lucie County, Florida ranch in 1947. The resulting steer and heifer calves were outstanding, but the Hereford bulls required to produce those calves had extreme problems with feet, eyes and general livability. Adams quickly realized that using Hereford bulls that were not adapted to South Florida was simply not feasible and he began experimenting with various types of Brahman-Hereford cross bulls. Eventually he identified Braford bulls that were producing calves that met his needs and he used these bulls and their offspring to form what is recognized as the Foundation Herd of the Braford breed in the United States. Brafords are known for superior maternal ability. Early puberty, fertility, calving ease, optimum milk production, maternal aptitude and productive longevity have earned Brafords this distinguished reputation. Braford cattle are approximately 3/8 Brahman and 5/8 Hereford.

Reference:

Adams Ranch, Inc., Fort Pierce, FL 34979

United Braford Breeders, 422 East Main Suite 218, Nacogdoches, TX 75961. Phone: (409) 569-8200 Email: ubb@brafords.org

Photographs:

Adams Ranch, Inc., Fort Pierce, FL 34979

Brahman

The Brahman breed originated from Bos indicus cattle originally brought from India. Through centuries of exposure to inadequate food supplies, insect pests, parasites, diseases and the weather extremes of tropical India, the native cattle developed some remarkable adaptations for survival. These are the “sacred cattle of India,” and many of the Hindu faith will not eat meat from them, will not permit them to be slaughtered, and will not sell them. These facts, in conjunction with he quarantine regulations of the United States, have made it difficult to import cattle from India into this country.

All the Bos indicus cattle are characterized by a large hump over the top of the shoulder and neck. Spinal processes below the hump are extended, and there is considerable muscular tissue covering the processes. The other characteristics of these cattle are their horns, which usually curve upward and are sometimes tilted to the rear, their ears, which are generally large and pendulous, and the throatlatch and dewlap, which have a large amount of excess skin. They also have more highly developed sweat glands than European cattle (Bos taurus) and so can perspire more freely. Bos indicus cattle produce an oily secretion from the sebaceous glands which has a distinctive odor and is reported to assist in repelling insects.
Origin of the Breed

Some 30 well defined breeds of cattle have been listed in India. Three principal strains or varieties were brought to the United States and used in the development of the Brahman breed are the Guzerat, the Nellore, and Gir. In addition, the Krishna Valley strain was introduced and used to a lesser extent. The general similarity of the Guzert strain to the cattle selected and developed in this country would indicate that cattlemen working with the breed have generally preferred this type.
Introduction into the United States

There are conflicting reports as to the exact manner of the introduction of Indian cattle to the United States, but the following account was give to Dr. Hilton Briggs, author of Modern Breeds of Livestock, by the American Brahman Breeders’ Association to help summarize the importations:

The first Indian cattle, of which there is any record, were imported in 1849 by Dr. James Bolton Davis of Fairfield County, South Carolina, who, it is believed, became acquainted with Bos indicus cattle while serving as agricultural advisor to the Sultan of Turkey. Although the descendants of these cattle were spread widely throughout the South, their complete identity was lost during the Civil War. Two Indian bulls were given to Richard Barrow, a cotton and sugar planter of St. Francisville, LA., in 1854, by the British Crown in recognition of Mr. Barrow’s services of teaching cotton and sugar cane culture to a British representative who was to take these arts to India. The offspring of these cattle became known as “Barrow Grade” cattle, becoming widely known through the Gulf Coast region. The success of these two animals led to the importation of two more Indian bulls in 1885 by J.M. Frost and Albert Montgomery of Houston, Texas. By mating these two bulls to the offspring of the Barrow bulls, the first attempt to concentrate the blood of Bos indicus cattle in the United States was undertaken.

A few animals were imported by circus organizations from time to time, some of the more desirable ones being purchased by farmers and ranchers. One of the more famous of such purchases was a red bull named “prince,” acquired by A.M. McFaddin, of Victoria, Texas, in 1904, from the Haggenbach Animal Show. Another was the sale of about twelve head of Indian cattle by Haggenbach, these finally being acquired by Dr. William States Jacobs of Houston.

In 1905 and 1906, the Pierce Ranch of Pierce, Texas, assisted by Thomas M. O’Connor of Victoria, Texas, imported thirty bulls and three females of several Indian types. These were personally selected by Able P. Borden, manager of the Pierce Ranch.

In 1923-24, 90 bulls of the Guzerat, Gir and Nellore types were imported from Brazil. In 1925, a second importation from Brazil, including 120 bulls and 18 females, reached this country. Both groups were shipped to Mexico and driven overland to the United States.

Eighteen Brazilian bulls were brought to Texas by way of Mexico in 1946.
Breed Development

It is said that during the period from 1910 to 1920, many cattle in the south-western part of Texas and the coastal country along the Gulf of Mexico showed considerable evidence of Bos indicus breeding. Naturally, many of the bulls that were used were the result of crosses with other breeds. Some breeders attempted to keep the stock pure, but they were in the minority.

Since there are records of less than 300 imported Brahmans, most of which were bulls, it must be assumed that other breeds supplied the foundation animals for the breed. The bulls were used on cows of the European breeds and on the descendants of these crosses. By the fifth generation (31/32) the offspring carried not only a preponderance of Bos indicus breeding but selection pressure had permitted the development of an animal generally regarded as superior to the original imports for beef production.
Physical Characteristics

* Size. Brahmans are intermediate in size among beef breeds found in the United States. Bulls will generally weigh from 1600 to 2200 pounds and cows from 1000 to 1400 pounds in average condition. The calves are small at birth, weighing 60 to 65 pounds, but grow very rapidly and wean at weights comparable to other breeds.
* Disposition. The disposition of Brahman cattle is often questioned. Brahmans are intelligent, inquisitive and shy. They are unusually thrifty, hardy and adaptable to a wide range of feed and climate. However, these characteristics also suggest careful, kind handling methods. Brahmans like affection and can become very docile. They quickly respond to handling they receive, good or bad. Well bred, wisely selected and properly treated Brahmans are as easily handled as other breeds.
* Colors. Brahmans very in color from very light grey or red to almost black. A majority of the breed are light to medium grey. Mature bulls are normally darker than cows and usually have dark areas on the neck, shoulders and lower thighs.
* Heat Tolerance. Studies at the University of Missouri found that Brahman and European cattle thrive equally well at temperatures down to 8° F. They found that European cattle begin to suffer adversely as the air temperature goes above 70° F, showing an increase in body temperature and a decline in appetite and milk production as 75° F, is passed. Brahmans, on the other hand, show little effect from temperatures up to and beyond 105° F. Although heat tolerance is only one factor in environmental adaptation of cattle, it is considered the most important. These are some of the other factors that allow Brahmans to adapt to adverse conditions.
1. Hair Coat. The short, thick, glossy hair coat of the Brahman reflects much of the sun’s rays, adding to its ability to graze in the glaring midday sun without suffering.
2. Skin Pigmentation. The black pigmented skin of Brahmans keeps out the intense rays of the sun, which in excessive amounts will damage deeper tissue layers.
3. Loose Skin. An abundance of loose skin on the Brahman is thought to contribute to its ability to withstand warm weather by increasing the body surface area exposed to cooling.
4. Sweating Ability. Brahmans have sweat glands and the ability to sweat freely through the pores of the skin, which contributes materially to their heat tolerance.
5. Internal Body Heat. One factor contributing to the great heat tolerance of Brahmans, discovered in the Missouri studies, is that they produce less internal body heat in warm weather than do cattle of European breeds. Waste heat is produced from feed at the expense of growth and milk production.

Brahman cattle have been found to fill a unique place in American cattle production. The Brahman and cattle carrying percentages of Brahman breeding have been found extremely useful in the southern coastal area of the United States, where they have demonstrated their ability to withstand hot and humid weather and to resist insects. In more recent years Brahman cattle have spread considerably from their initial locations and are now found widely through the United States. They are also good mothers and produce a very satisfactory milk flow under conditions that are adverse for best performance of the European breeds. Cancer eye is almost unknown in the breed. They have established a considerable reputation for a high dressing percentage, and their carcasses have a very good “cutout” value with minimum of outside fat.

Probably the greatest tribute to the Brahman breed and its breeders is the rapid growth of the breed outside of the United States. They have constituted a large proportion of our exports of breeding cattle outside continental North America.
Brahman Breed Associations and Registries
Reference:

Briggs, H.M. & D.M. Briggs. Modern Breeds of Livestock. Fourth Edition. Macmillan Publishing Co. 1980

Promotional materials from the American Brahman Breeders Association from North Star Brahman Ranch, Ed or Glenda Daniels, Rt.3 Box 694, Broken Arrow, OK 74014 Phone: (918) 357-2432 Email: brahman@ionet.net

Photographs:

American Brahman Breeders Association, Houston, TX

Handbook of Australian Livestock, Australian Meat & Livestock Corporation,1989, 3rd Edition



Brahmousin

The Brahmousin breed blends the best of Limousin and Brahman characteristics. Purebred Brahmousin are classified as five-eights (5/8) Limousin and three-eights (3/8) Brahman. This mix has been found to be the most widely accepted and most useful for the majority of the United States. However, the American Brahmousin Council offers a flexible program that allows animals that are not purebred to be recorded as long as they are at least one-quarter (1/4) Limousin and one-quarter (1/4) Brahman. It is important to note, that in order to be recorded as a Brahmousin, the animal must be sired by a registered Limousin bull, registered Brahman bull or a registered Brahmousin bull.

Reference:

American Brahmousin Council, R. P. Cummins – Executive Director, P. O. Box 88, Whitesboro, Texas 76273, Office 903.564,3995 Email brahmousinorg@texoma.net

Images:

American Brahmousin Council, R. P. Cummins – Executive Director, P. O. Box 88, Whitesboro, Texas 76273, Office 903.564,3995 Email brahmousinorg@texoma.net

Brangus

Background Information

The Brangus breed was developed to utilize the superior traits of Angus and Brahman cattle. Their genetics are stabilized at 3/8 Brahman and 5/8 Angus.

The combination results in a breed which unites the traits of two highly successful parent breeds. The Brahman, through rigorous natural selection, developed disease resistance, overall hardiness and outstanding maternal instincts. Angusare known for their superior carcass qualities. They are also extremely functional females which excel in both fertility and milking ability.
How It All Began

A review of the development of the Brangus breed would take us back beyond the founding of the American Brangus Breeders Association in 1949; however, registered Brangus descend from the foundation animals recorded that year or registered Brahman and Angus cattle enrolled since then. Much of the early work in crossing Brahman and Angus cattle was done at the USDA Experiment Station in Jeanerette, Louisiana. According to the USDA 1935 Yearbook in Agriculture the research with these crossed started about 1932

During the same period, Clear Creek Ranch of Welch, Oklahoma and Grenada, Mississippi, Raymond Pope of Vinita, Oklahoma, the Essar Ranch of San Antonio, Texas, and a few individual breeders in other parts of the United States and Canada were also carrying on private experimental breeding programs. They were looking for a desirable beef-type animal that would retain the Brahman’s natural ability to thrive under adverse conditions in combination with the excellent qualities for which the Angus are noted.

The early breeders from 16 states and Canada met in Vinita, Oklahoma, on July 2, 1949, and organized the American Brangus Breeders Association, later renamed the International Brangus Breeders Association (IBBA), with headquarters in Kansas City, Missouri, and eventually San Antonio, Texas, where the permanent headquarters has been located since January, 1973. There are now members in nearly every state, Canada, Mexico, Australia, Central America, Argentina, and South Rhodesia in Africa.

Registered Brangus must be 3/8 Brahman and 5/8 Angus, solid black and polled. Both sire and dam must be recorded with the International Brangus Breeders Association. Foundation Angus and Brahman cattle must be registered in their respective breed association prior to being enrolled with the IBBA. Intermediate crosses necessary to reach the 3/8 – 5/8 percentage are certified by the IBBA.

In recent years, the major portion of the Brangus registered are from Brangus parents, but an increasing number of foundation Brahman and Angus are being enrolled as the breed achieves greater recognition.

Interest in developing breeds of cattle carrying some percentage of Brahman breeding for the general improvement of the commercial cattle of the United States speaks well for the apparent advantages that Bos indicus cattle have in areas of high heat and humidity.

Research at Louisiana has indicated that Brangus cows increased their weights during the summer months while Angus cows lost weight, indicating that they were more adapted to coastal climates. Calves from Brangus were heavier at birth and weaning and for total pounds produced per cow. The Angus had an advantage in conception rate and calved earlier, and the calves were more vigorous at birth and survived better to weaning.

The breed have proven resistant to heat and high humidity. Under conditions of cool and cold climate they seem to produce enough hair for adequate protection. The cows are good mothers and the calves are usually of medium size at birth. The cattle respond well to conditions of abundant feed but have exhibited hardiness under conditions of stress.
Brangus Breed Associations and Registries
Reference:

Briggs, H.M. & D.M. Briggs. Modern Breeds of Livestock. Fourth Edition. Macmillan Publishing Co. 1980

International Brangus Breeders Association, San Antonio, TX.

Photographs:

International Brangus Breeders Association, San Antonio, TX

Brown Swiss

Switzerland, The Native Home of the Brown Swiss breed of cattle, is a very rough and mountainous country with a total area of about 15,940 square miles. However, about 25 percent of the area is covered with rocks, lakes, rivers, snow-capped mountains, and glaciers, and there are only about eight million acres of productive land of which one half is used for hay and pasture. The Alps separate Switzerland on the southern border from Italy, and the Jura Mountains form the boundary between Switzerland and France. Much of the arable land of the country lies in the central plain, which has an average elevation in excess of 1,200 feet. Here the climate is very enjoyable most of the year with an average mean temperature of about 50 degrees F. The plain has an annual rainfall of approximately that of the midwestern Corn Belt region of the United States, but in the mountainous regions the winters are very severe and excessive rainstorms are common during the summer months.

Switzerland has been noted as a cheese producing country for many years, and in the summer many of the dairy herds are taken into the mountainous regions and are grazed on the abundant pastures and meadows that result from the heavy rainfall. Cheesemakers and caretakers of the cattle accompany the herds to the mountains during the summer months, but as fall approaches, the cattle are returned to the lower lands where they are stabled or housed for the winter.

During the Middle Ages the land of Switzerland was under the feudal system, and agricultural improvement was not marked. After the turn of the 19th century agricultural conditions in Switzerland were much improved; lands in many of the 22 cantons (similar to states) of Switzerland were put under fence, and crops of turnips, beets, and improved hays were introduced. This decidedly improved the feed supply available for cattle, and interest was aroused in breeding cattle that were more productive. Improvements in cheese manufacturing that were made about in 1825 created a market for an increased quantity of milk.

Origin of the Breed

The Foundation Stock. Concerning the origin of the Brown Swiss, Prentice,1 who made an exhaustive study of the origin of the various dairy breeds, has stated:

Brown Swiss cattle, therefore, first became prominent among dairy breeds about a 100 years ago. The exact date when this fashion arose is not certain, but it was at some time in the first half of the 19th century.

The Brown Swiss breed in the United States was declared a dairy breed in 1906, and in 1907 a classification for Brown Swiss was provided at the National Dairy Show. Many writers have suggested that the breed is centuries old and that little crossing with other breeds has been done for hundreds of years. As is the case in the origin of the other breeds of livestock, this conclusion seems to be more romantic than correct.

The Brown Swiss, as we know it in the United States today, originated in the cantons of Schwyz, Zug, St. Gallen, Glarus, Lucerne, and Zurich of Switzerland. The canton of Schwyz was the scene of most of the early improvement, and in Switzerland the breed is often referred to as Schwyer or Brown Schwyzer. Unimproved cattle similar to the Brown Swiss have been in this territory for a considerable period of time. All the cantons in which the breeds originated are inhabited by German speaking people, and apparently large cattle were brought in from Germany to improve the cattle of Switzerland, which until about 1860 were often quite lacking in size. The brown cow is known as Braunvieh in German speaking countries; Bruna Alpina in Italy, Brunedes Alpes in France, and Pardo Suizo in Spain and Latin America including Brazil.

The Pinzgaur breed, which is apparently a native of Austria, seems to have been the breed from that country that was used in the improvement of the Brown Swiss. The predominant cattle of Schwyz in about 1860 were of a chestnut to a dull black color, and most of the cattle were darker on their fore- and hindquarters than of their bodies. Many of them carried a light-colored or light grayish stripe down their backs. This variation of color pattern was apparently introduced from the Pinzgau, and the Brown Swiss of the modern day seem to have acquired the light dorsal stripe from these cattle brought in from Austria. Since no records of the breed were maintained for a good many decades after the formation of the breed, it is altogether possible that other cattle could have been used in the improvement. Direct evidence of such crosses is lacking.

Breed Activity in Switzerland. There has been extremely little promotion of the Brown Swiss breed in its native country although it has been exported to Russia, Italy, Germany, the United States, and many other countries where it has gained a very favorable reputation. Herd Books for the Brown Swiss did not appear in its native land until 1911, although such a Herd Book has appeared 20 years earlier in the United States. Such breed promotional activities as are carried on the Switzerland are largely under the auspices of a government subsidized association that sponsors shows and sales of purebred livestock. A Brown Swiss Cattle Breeders Association, which was organized in Switzerland, has been active in promoting shows and in the production testing and classification of the breed.

Introduction of the Brown Swiss to the United States

The first Brown Swiss cattle were brought to the United States in 1869 by Henry M. Clark of Belmont, Massachusetts, who visited the canton of Schwyz and secured a bull and seven females from Col. G. Burgi of Arth, Switzerland. When the Brown Swiss Cattle Breeders Association was organized, the bull was registered as William Tell 1, and the females were registered as Zurich 1, Lucerne 2, Gretchen 3, Brinlie 4, Lissa 5, Christine 6, and Geneva 7. These cattle were subsequently sold to D. Hall, Providence, Rhode Island, and D.G. Aldrich, Worcester, Massachusetts. In 1882, Scott and Harris, Wethersfield, Connecticut, imported 19 cows, and in 1889, George W. Harris of the firm established a purebred herd later operated by his sons, George M. and Rodney W., of Wethersfield, Connecticut. Five other importations within the 10 year period following 1882 included those of L.J. McCormick, Chicago, Illinois; William Koch, New York, New York; J.C. Eldridge, Middle Falls, New York; E.M. Barton, Hinsdale, Illinois; and McLaury Brothers of New York.

A notable importation of the breed was that in 1906 by E.M. Barton who brought 34 cows and five bulls to this country. One of these was the bull Junker 2365, dropped in 1904, which became Grand Champion at the National Dairy Shows in 1907, 1908, and 1909. He sired daughters that made excellent production records and had a very important influence in the breed.2 In 1906, importations were stopped because of foot-and-mouth disease, and only three cattle have been brought from Switzerland since that date. There has been a total of only 155 head of Brown Swiss brought form Switzerland and recorded in the Herd Book in this country. A very steady growth of the breed from this very meager beginning has been most gratifying to those sponsoring the development and improvement of the Brown Swiss.

1 E. Parmalee Prentice, American Dairy Cattle, Harper & Row, Publishers, Inc., New York, 1942.
2 Dorsa M. Yoder and Jay L. Lush, “The Genetic History of the Brown Swiss Cattle in the United States,” Journal of Heredity, 28(4), 154-160, 1937.
Reference:

Briggs, H.M. & D.M. Briggs. Modern Breeds of Livestock. Fourth Edition. Macmillan Publishing Co. 1980 (reprinted with permission from Dr. Briggs).

Photographs:

Brown Swiss Cattle Breeders’ Association of America, Beloit, WI

Handbook of Australian Livestock, Australian Meat & Livestock Corporation,1989, 3rd Edition

Hoards Dairyman, Fort Atkinson, WI

Charolais

The Charolais originated in west-central to southeastern France, in the old French provinces of Charolles and neighboring Nievre. The exact origins of the Charolais are lost to us but it must have been developed from cattle found in the area. Legend has it that white cattle were first noticed in the region as early as 878 A.D., and by the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries were well and favorably known in French markets, especially at Lyon and Villefranche. Selection developed a white breed of cattle which, like other cattle of continental Europe, were used for draft, milk and meat.

The cattle were generally confined to the area in which they originated until the French Revolution. But, in 1773, Claude Mathieu, a farmer and cattle producers from the Charolles region, moved to the Nievre province, taking his herd of white cattle with him. The breed flourished there, so much so that the improved cattle were known more widely as Nivemais cattle for a time than by their original name of Charolais.

One of the early influential herds in the region was started in 1840 by the Count Charles de Bouille. His selective breeding led him to set up a herd book in 1864 for the breed at Villars near the village of Magny-Cours. Breeders in the Charolles vicinity established a herd book in 1882. The two societies merged in 1919, with the older organization holding the records of the later group into their headquarters at Nevers, the capital of the Nievre province.

The French have long selected their cattle for size and muscling. They selected for bone and power to a greater extent than was true in the British Isles. The French breeders stressed rapid growth in addition to cattle that would ultimately reach a large size. These were men that wanted cattle that not only grew out well but could be depended upon for draft power. Little attention was paid to refinement, but great stress was laid on utility.

The Charolais of France are white in color, horned, long bodied, and good milkers with a general coarseness to the animal not being uncommon.
Introduction to the United States

Soon after the First World War, a young Mexican industrialist of French name and ancestry, Jean Pugibet, brought some of the French cattle to his ranch in Mexico. He had seen the Charolais cattle during World War I while serving as a French army volunteer and was impressed by their appearance and productivity. He arranged for a shipment of two bulls and 10 heifers to Mexico in 1930. Two later shipments in 1931 and 1937 increased the total number to 37 – eight bulls and 29 females. Not long after the last shipment, Pugibet died and no further imports were attempted.

The first Charolais to come into the United States from Mexico are believed to be two bulls, Neptune and Ortolan, which were purchased from Pugibet by the King Ranch in Texas and imported in June 1936. Later imports of bulls were owned by some of the early “pioneers” in the industry: Harl Thomas, Fred W. Turner, C.M. “Pete” Frost, M.G. Michaelis Sr., and I.G. “Cap” Yates, all of Texas, J.A. “Palley” Lawton of Louisiana, and others.

In the mid-1940s an outbreak of Hoof and Mouth Disease occurred in Mexico. As a result, a treaty between the United States, Canada and Mexico set up a permanent quarantine against cattle coming into any of these countries from Europe or any country in which Hoof and Mouth Disease was known to exist. This barred any further importation of French Charolais on this continent until 1965 when Canada opened the import doors via rigid quarantine both in France and in Canada.
Development in the United States

Until the mid-1960s, all the Charolais in Mexico, the United States and Canada were descendants of this initial Pugibet herd. Due to the limited number of original animals and the import restrictions which were in place, they have been crossed on other cattle in an upgrading process. Because of the use of the upgrading process few of the Charolais cattle currently found in the United State are of pure French breeding. With the lightening of the import restrictions in Canada in the mid-1960′s fullblood Charolais were again imported from France. This allowed for the importation of new bloodlines from France. This meant new genetic material for tightly-bred Charolais pedigrees of the time. Several breeding herds were estabilished in Canada, as well as the island of Eleuthera, in the Bahamas. Japan, England and Ireland also imported purebred Charolais directly from France. Offspring from these herds were later imported to the United States.

American Charolais are referred to as “purebred” or “recorded” depending upon the percentage of known Charolais blood. The term purebred is used on those that carry 31/32 or more Charolais blood and those less than 31/32 can be referred to as recorded. People wishing to develop a herd will still find it possible to upgrade, using purebred Charolais sires, a foundation cow herd of one of the other cattle breeds or their crosses. Five generations of purebred bulls are required to produced the 31/32 level for classification as “purebred”. Sires used in the grading-up process must be registered. The offspring from the first as well as succeeding generations must be registered as “recorded” until they reach the 31/32 level at which time they are referred to as purebred.

It has been said that no other breed has impacted the North American beef industry so significantly as the introduction of Charolais. The Charolais came into widespread use in the United States cattle industry at a time when producers were seeking larger framed, heavier cattle than the traditional British breeds. The increased use on the range indicates that the cows have performed well under a variety of environmental conditions. Their ability to walk, graze aggressively in warm weather, withstand reasonable cold, and raise heavy calves has drawn special praise from many that have them. Bulls have developed a well-earned reputation when used in grading-up for herd improvement. This is especially noted when they are used in herds where size and ruggedness are lacking

Charolais are white or creamy white in color, but the skin carries appreciable pigmentation. The hair coat is usually short in summer but thickens and lengthens in cold weather. Charolais is a naturally horned beef animal. But through the breeding-up program, where naturally polled breeds were sometimes used as foundation animals, polled Charolais have emerged as an important part of the breed. Charolais cattle are large with mature bulls weighing from 2,000 to well over 2,500 pounds and cows weigh from 1,250 to over 2,000 pounds.
Charolais Breed Associations and Registries
Reference:

Briggs, H.M. & D.M. Briggs. Modern Breeds of Livestock. Fourth Edition. Macmillan Publishing Co. 1980

Promotional material, American-International Charolais Association, Kansas City, MO

Photographs:

American-International Charolais Association, Kansas City, MO

Dajal

The Dajal are a draft type of cattle and are found mainly in the Dajal area in district Dera Ghazi Khan in Punjab Province. Their color is white or gray, deepening to almost black on the neck, shoulder and hump in mature males. The average weight at maturity of Dajal cattle is 500 kg for males and 390 kg for females.

The Dajal breed is an off shoot of Bhagnari breed, having almost similar points. However, Dajal cattle are comparatively smaller in size and lighter in color.

Reference:

Muhammad Tahir, Associate Professor, Department of Animal Breeding & Genetics, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan

Photographs:

Muhammad Tahir, Associate Professor, Department of Animal Breeding & Genetics, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan



Droughtmaster

The Droughtmaster were developed in northern Queensland, Australia’s hot tropical north. Initial crossing of Shorthorn and Brahman breeds led to selective breeding of the progeny to arrive finally at a fixed tropical breed containing approximately 50 percent Shorthorn and 50 percent Brahman bloodlines. Its popularity has increased to the degree that is spread throughout most states of Australia, although they are found mainly in Queensland.

The breed is basically red in color, although variations from a golden honey color to dark red occur. Droughtmasters are either polled or horned with the majority of stud cattle exhibiting the poll characteristic. Their heat and tick tolerance, excellent fertility, ease of calving and quiet temperament give this breed a good reputation.

Droughtmasters exhibit medium to slightly late maturity in carcass development. They have gained a reputation for producing lean carcasses in the yearling to two year old steer group, although large bullocks are produced, particularly in northern Queensland.

References:

Handbook of Australian Livestock, Australian Meat & Livestock Corporation,1989, 3rd Edition

Mason, I.L. World Dictionary of Livestock Breeds. Third Edition. C.A.B International. 1988

Photographs:

Handbook of Australian Livestock, Australian Meat & Livestock Corporation,1989, 3rd Edition



Dutch Friesian

Also known by: Dutch Black Pied, Zwartbont (Dutch), Black-and-white Holland, Black Pied Dutch, Dutch Lowland

The Dutch Friesian was bred for many years as a dual-purpose, it is now a prime milk-producing breed with milk yields highest in the cows of North Holland with a yield per lactation of 5,222 kg with a fat yield of 4.09%.

The exact origins of the breed are difficult to determine but it is known that in the 18th century, herds of small black-and-white cattle were brought into northern Holland and Friesland from northern Jutland to replace animals that had fallen victim to disease and flooding. These animals were crossed with the existing Dutch cattle and formed the basis of the Dutch Friesian. Before the establishment of the Netherlands herdbook in 1873 and the Friesland herdbook in 1879, both black-pied and red-pied animals were maintained separately. The preference for black-pied cattle, particularly in the United States, led to the further segregation of red-pied animals and presently this color variation only exists in small number in the Netherlands.

Production levels of this breed declined during the 1950s when excessive emphasis was placed on correct color pattern. During the 1970s Holsteins were imported from the United States and used to improved the milk production. This resulted in larger animals with a more pronounced diary characteristics. The mixing of these two breeds is such that now many Dutch Friesians are 25% to 75% Holstein.

Reference:

Genus Bos: Cattle Breeds of the World, 1985, MSO-AGVET (Merck & Co., Inc.), Rahway, N.J.

Mason, I.L. 1996. A World Dictionary of Livestock Breeds, Types and Varieties. Fourth Edition. C.A.B International. 273 pp.

Photographs:

Jan-Willem Doornenbal, The Netherlands



Guernsey

The Isle of Guernsey, a tiny island in the English Channel off the coast of France, is the birthplace of the Guernsey cow. About 960 A.D., besieged by buccaneers and sea rovers, the Island came to the attention of Robert Duke of Normandy. He sent a group of militant monks to educate the natives to cultivate the soil and defend the land. The monks brought with them the best bloodlines of French cattle – Norman Brindles, also known as Alderneys, from the province of Isigny and the famous Froment du Leon breed from Brittany – and developed the Guernsey.

Importation to America

Introduction of the Guernsey to America occurred around September 1840, when Captain Belair of the Schooner Pilot brought three Alderney cows to the port of New York. Later, Captain Prince imported two heifers and a bull from the Island. These animals were the original stock of a great majority of the Guernseys that make up the national Guernsey herd today.

America’s Guernseys

With the understanding that positive identification is crucial to preserving the purity of the breed, a group of Guernsey breeders founded the American Guernsey Cattle Club in 1877. Since then, the organization has registered over three million Guernseys. Now the American Guernsey Association, the national organization for the registration and promotion of Guernsey cattle, has introduced many other programs for the advancement of the breed.

Making Strides in Genetic Improvement

Genetically, the Guernsey of today is much different than that of 960 A.D. Due to the advent and commercialization of artificial insemination, a process by which a cow is inseminated without ever seeing a bull, a particular bull can sire thousands of offspring. This genetic improvement has been generated by a progressive, aggressive young sire program. Young bulls’ semen is distributed throughout the Guernsey population until the bulls have a large enough daughter population that their offsprings’ qualities are predictable. As proven bulls, these sires may have as many as 1,500 daughters in up to 400 herds. However, every six months the list of available sires is updated. At that time, new bulls with superior genetics are added and older sires lose their “active” status. This insures that the breed-wide effort to improve the Guernsey’s sound genetic base continues.

Guernsey’s Golden Product

The Guernsey cow is known for producing high-butterfat, high-protein milk with a high concentration of betacarotene. Being of intermediate size, Guernseys produce their high quality milk while consuming 20 to 30 percent less feed per pound of milk produced than larger dairy breeds. They are also known for having a lower projected calving interval and have a younger average age of first calf heifers than the larger breeds. Other attractive characteristics of Guernseys are their lack of any known undesirable genetic recessives and their adaptability to warmer climates.

The Guernsey is also an excellent grazer. She is a cow that is made for pasture-based milk production. Because of her grazing abilities, gentle disposition, calving ease and ability to efficiently produce milk with less feed than other breeds, she is the ideal candidate for intensive grazing. Dairy producers can realize her profit potential while reducing management costs.

The Tanbark Trail

During the summer and fall of the year, Guernsey enthusiasts from all over the United States congregate at state fairs and national shows to have their Guernseys judged. This show season is referred to as the “Tanbark Trail”. Each year, approximately 200 breeders participate in three national shows which culminate in one national contest to find the Guernsey that best represents the ideal conformation of the breed.

The Guernsey Today

Data from herds enrolled in the American Guernsey Association’s Dairy Herd Improvement Register program during 1992 shows the breed average to be 14,667 pounds of milk, 659 pounds of butterfat and 510 pounds of protein on a mature-equivalent basis. Today, although Guernsey breed numbers are steadily decreasing as the total dairy cow population decreases across the United States, the commitment of the AGA Board of Directors, staff and Guernsey breeders is stronger than ever. Evidence supporting the ability of the Guernsey cow to compete effectively can be found throughout the country. Take advantage of Guernseys and join others who are taking advantage of this profitable cow!

Reference:

American Guernsey Association, 7614 Slate Ridge Blvd., P.O. Box 666, Reynoldsburg, Ohio 43068-0666. Phone: (614) 864-2409.

Photographs:

Handbook of Australian Livestock, Australian Meat & Livestock Corporation,1989, 3rd Edition

Hoards Dairyman, Fort Atkinson, WI

American Guernsey Association

Hereford

The Hereford breed was founded some two and one-half centuries ago as a product of necessity. Thrifty and enterprising farmers near Hereford in the County of Herefordshire, England, were determined to produce beef for the expanding food market created by Britain’s industrial revolution. To succeed in Herefordshire, these early-day cattlemen realized they must have cattle which could efficiently convert their native grass to beef and do it at a profit.

There was no breed in existence at the time to fill that need, so the farmers of Herefordshire founded the beef breed that logically became known as Herefords. These early Hereford breeders molded their cattle with the idea in mind of a high yield of beef and efficiency of production, and so firmly fixed these characteristics that they remain today as outstanding characteristics of the breed.

Beginning in 1742 with a bull calf from the cow Silver and two cows, Pidgeon and Mottle, inherited from his father’s estate, Benjamin Tomkins is credited with founding the Hereford breed. This was 18 years before Robert Bakewell began developing his theories of animal breeding. From the start, Mr. Tomkins had as his goals economy in feeding, natural aptitude to grow and gain from grass and grain, rustling ability, hardiness, early maturity and prolificacy, traits that are still of primary importance today.

Other pioneering breeders were to follow the Tomkins’ lead and establish the world-wide renown for the Herefordshire cattle causing their exportation from England to wherever grass grows and beef production is possible.

Herefords in the 1700′s and early 1800′s in England were much larger than today. Many mature Herefords of those days weighed 3,000 pounds or more. Cotmore, a winning show bull and noteworthy sire, weighed 3,900 pounds when shown in 1839. Gradually, the type and conformation changed to less extreme size and weight to get more smoothness, quality and efficiency.
HEREFORD IMPORTATIONS

Herefords came to the United States in 1817 when the great statesman Henry Clay of Kentucky made the first importation — a bull and two females. These cattle and their offspring attracted considerable attention, but they were eventually absorbed by the local cattle population and disappeared from permanent identity.

The first breeding herd in America is considered to be one established in 1840 by William H. Sotham and Erastus Corning of Albany, New York, and for practical purposes Herefords in the United States date from the Sotham-Corning beginning. The more densely populated eastern area of the United States, including herds in New England, was the early home of Herefords and from there they fanned out to the South and West as the population expanded and the demand for beef increased.

Records of the New York State Fair reveal that 11 Herefords were exhibited there in 1844 and were highly praised. Several breeders were active in exhibiting at fairs and exhibitions in the East and Midwest where the Herefords met with great success. Perhaps the greatest early interest in the breed came from the 1876 Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia where T. L. Miller was awarded a medal for the first-prize herd.
HEREFORDS – THE GREAT IMPROVER

With the end of the Civil War and the coming of the American Industrial Revolution, the westward expansion continued and so did America’s appetite for beef. Western ranching developed from free land and local longhorned cattle originally brought to Mexico by the Spanish conquerors and allowed to drift northward into what is now America’s great southwestern cattle country. These cattle were tough and had the bred-in ability to survive, a trait that enabled their being driven to railhead shipping points and then transported by rail to slaughter at eastern markets. It was on such cattle that Herefords proved the great improver. They survived the rough ranching conditions and improved beef quality in the process. Demand for Hereford bulls boomed.
DEMAND CAUSES INCREASE IN HEREFORD IMPORTATIONS IN 1890′s

To satisfy the growing market which developed from the western area cattlemen, Hereford breeders expanded their herds through heavy importations from Herefordshire. Whereas only 200 head were imported up to 1880, more than 3,500 head of Herefords came over during the 1880-1889 period. During this time, breeders of Herefords led by such men as T. L. Miller, C. M. Culbertson and Thomas Clark, all of Illinois, won hard-fought battles for breed acceptance in the agricultural fairs and expositions which furthered the use of Herefords in American beef production.

Early Hereford breeder promoters and exhibitors in the 1870′s and 1880′s included such names as Earl, Stuart, Fowler, Van Natta and Studebaker of Indiana, and the Swan Land and Cattle Co., forerunner of the present Wyoming Hereford Ranch. These breeders were instrumental in the movement of Herefords to Wyoming, other mountain states and the Northwest. Gudgell and Simpson of Missouri made their start in 1877. Four years later, they were to gain everlasting renown in the Hereford world through importing and concentrating on the great young sire Anxiety 4. No other bull comes close to the stature of Anxiety 4 for he is often credited as being the “Father of American Herefords” and “the bull that gave Herefords hindquarters.” Today, he is the common ancestor of nearly all Hereford cattle in this country.

The Hereford industry in America passed a great milestone of progress on June 22, 1881 , when a few breeders met in Chicago at the Grand Pacific Hotel to lay the foundation for the organization of the American Hereford Association, essentially for the two-fold purpose of keeping the breed’s records and promoting the interests of Hereford breeders.

For over a century, the AHA has performed its duties with little change in the original bylaws while providing leadership for the industry that has seen Hereford cattle taken to every area, region and territory of America and become the greatest influence in the nation’s beef production activity.
HEREFORDS BECOME DOMINANT

It was largely through shows and expositions that Herefords gained their greatest acceptance among cattlemen of this country and, no doubt, the first great impact was scored at the 1883 Chicago Fat Stock Show, the forerunner of the famous International Livestock Exposition which, until closing after the 1975 event, was the premier show for market animals in America. At this show over a century ago, the Hereford steer Roan Boy won the grand championship for his exhibitor, C. M. Culbertson. The steer’s early maturity marked the beginning of the end for the previously popular four-year-old steers — the big, rough, old fashioned kind. In 1886, a two-year-old Hereford was grand champion and in 1903 Hereford yearlings won the carlot grand championship. Three years later a 336-day-old Hereford won the show, the first ever at less than two years old.

Thus, Herefords led the way in revolutionizing beef production in America, largely through the traits of doing ability and early maturity — getting fat at an early age and producing the ideal in “baby beef.” While other traits in beef cattle continued to be important in the cattle breeder’s selection program during the ensuing years, there is no doubt that early maturity and fattening ability were of primary concern because (1) the market paid the highest price for the cattle that fattened well on forage; thus (2) the preferred breeding animals were those that demonstrated the ability to fatten readily at a given age.

To get this early maturity, breeders in the late 1930′s and 1940′s eagerly sought out the compact type of conformation — short, low set, wide and deep-bodied cattle — as their preferred breeding stock. By comparison, such cattle were naturally smaller. Their success in achieving such an animal with its abundance of fat and establishing that kind as the breed’s “ideal” proved to eventually be a detriment. The market changes that surfaced in the 1960′s caused such cattle to be penalized in price and discriminated against.
DEMAND CHANGES HEREFORD TYPE

Following World War II and well into the 1950′s, the compact, fat, small type cattle continued to be favored in the show ring, but quietly and almost unnoticed, there was a change taking place in the meat-packing industry and in the basic American consumer’s diet which reflected on the demand and price of the favored kind up to that time. The commercial market for fat or beef tallow declined, plus the fact that consumers were unwilling to buy the excess fat on cuts from “over done” carcasses. The result was that beef packers paid less for the overfat cattle and suddenly there was a different type of animal preferred by the industry — a trimmer, leaner, less fat and more red meat kind. The once preferred wide-backed, overfat and wastey cattle were heavily docked in the market.

This change in market preference was first expressed in Hereford circles at the National Hereford Conference in Denver in 1963, voiced more loudly in 1967 at a conference in Kansas City, and in the now famous 1969 conference in Wisconsin this change was very conclusively demonstrated. Economics in cost of production required faster daily gain at less cost conversion of feed to muscle instead of fat, and far less loss in offal waste in the desired market kind. These requirements translated to more size and a different style of conformation which, in turn, presented the breeder with a tremendous challenge in modernizing the breed and turning it around to a new kind of Hereford endowed with all the basic economical traits to encompass total performance — no desired trait achieved at the expense of another.

Accomplishing, their objective in a remarkably short time is a great tribute to the dedication of Hereford breeders, the broad genetic base of the breed, and the ability of breeders to utilize modern technology along with the practical application of the breeder’s art.

The 1960′s saw the beginning of acceptance of the performance era in Herefordom. Breeders began giving concentrated attention toward applying new-found tools such as performance testing, artificial insemination, objective measures, embryo transfers, generation turnover, and sire evaluation to effect more and more rapid genetic change in the past 25 years than perhaps had been accomplished previously since Benjamin Tomkins undertook his systematic efforts to make better beef cattle from his native Herefords.

In 1963, the American Hereford Association embarked on an experimental program to test sires under practical feedlot conditions through their progeny in feedlot performance and carcass yield. That program was replaced by the current National Reference Sire program to identify superior sires. This program led the way for all breeds in sire testing.

The beginning of the American Hereford Association’s record keeping activity was expanded to include performance records and initiation of the present Total Performance Records (TPR) service in 1964. Having been developed over some two decades, often amended to utilize new technology and to provide maximum service to breeders, the TPR program that has evolved has proven to be a great service to individual breeders and the breed in general. Presently, there are some two million records of performance on file in the AHA computer, stored for use to assist in selecting for improvements in future cattle generations.

The late 1960′s found breeders faced with overpowering evidence that the breed had too many cattle that simply did not measure up in the modern measures of performance and with great competition from European “exotic” breeds, Hereford followers sought out breeders and bloodlines noted for cattle of substantial size and performance.

It was fortunate for the breed that there was an ample and broad genetic base from which to select when the demand came for larger framed cattle. Breeders found the growth traits fairly easy to select for. Both 205-day and yearling weights were accurate measures of growth, fairly easy to obtain, and they were highly heritable.

Within herd selection was a long process when considering the rule of thumb of cow generation being some seven years. Many breeders began looking for short cuts. They searched the country for sires with more frame and size, requesting and analyzing weaning and yearling weights. Leaders in beef cattle education and research stressed growth as a major criteria of performance, often ignoring or de-emphasizing the most important economical trait of beef cattle production, fertility.

Breeders often selected for frame score and mature weight, and paid little heed to fertility, structural soundness, feet and legs. The “yellow and mellow” coloring, a tic of white in the back or extra white on the legs and underline became less of a selection criteria. “If big enough, markings and color became less important.”

Where and in what bloodlines could these cattle be found to increase the frame and weight of Herefords? Voices of the speakers at the Madison, Wisconsin, conference in June, 1969, had barely quieted when breeders started looking. The frame 5 steers at the conference came from the Northwest. That’s where many breeders headed and they found some bigger-than average framed bulls there. Many were of Evan Mischief, Mark Donald and Real Prince Domino bloodlines. Some breeders selected bigger framed cattle in Canada, many of which traced to an American-bred Prince Domino son, Real Prince Domino 109. Also about this time, breeders found the Line One cattle developed by the U.S. Range and Research Station at Miles City, Montana.

It was at the Miles City station in 1934 that a selection program commenced and the development of inbreeding several different lines with selection emphasis on yearling weights. Of all the different lines developed at Miles City, the most prominent to date has been the Line Ones.

The foundation cows for the Line Ones traced back to stock purchased in 1926 from George M. Miles. The bulls used in the development of the line were half-brothers, Advance Domino 20 and Advance Domino 54, purchased in Colorado. These two foundation sires were strong in Prince Domino blood.

Although the Line One cattle were developed at the Miles City station and they have remained a prime source of seedstock, a number of other breeders drew heavily on Line One sires starting in the 1940′s, and these breeders became suppliers of the Line One seedstock in the early 1970′s.

The complete and universal acceptance of utilizing performance records was a slow process and, even today, does not have universal appeal. Different breeders place emphasis on different aspects.

Because of such difference in opinions in the past, the present, and likely in the future, Hereford cattle will command the premier spot in the beef cattle industry for years to come.
Breed Associations and Registries

Reference:

The American Hereford Association, Box 014059, Kansas City, MO 64101 Phone: (816) 842-3757

Photographs:

Dr. Robert Kropp, Oklahoma State University

Holstein
Origin of the Breed

The Holstein cow originated in Europe. The major historical developement of this breed occured in what is now the Netherlands and more specifically in the two northern provices of North Holland and Friesland which lay on either side of the Zuider Zee. The original stock were the black animals and white animals of the Batavians and Friesians, migrant European tribes who settled in the Rhine Delta region about 2,000 years ago.

For many years, Holsteins were bred and strictly culled to obtain animals which would make best use of grass, the area’s most abundant resource. The intermingling of these animals evolved into an efficient, high-producing black-and-white dairy cow.

Imports to America

After the New World was settled, and markets began to develop for milk in America, dairy breeders turned to Holland for their seed stock.

Winthrop Chenery, a Massachusetts breeder, purchased a Holland cow from a Dutch sailing master who landed cargo at Boston in 1852. The cow had furnished the ship’s crew with fresh milk during the voyage. She proved to be such a satisfactory producer, that Chenery made later importations of Holsteins in 1857, 1859 and 1861. Many other breeders soon joined the race to establish Holsteins in America.

After about 8,800 Holsteins had been imported, cattle disease broke out in Europe and importation ceased.

Americans Build Their Own Breed

In the late 1800′s there was enough interest among Holstein breeders to form associations for the recording of pedigrees and maintenance of herdbooks. These associations merged in 1885 to found the Holstein-Friesian Association of America, the Holstein Association.
Characteristics of Holsteins

Holsteins are most quickly recognized by their distinctive color markings and outstanding milk production.

Physical Characteristics

Holsteins are large, stylish animals with color patterns of black and white or red and white.

A healthy Holstein calf weighs 90 pounds or more at birth. A mature Holstein cow weighs about 1500 pounds and stand 58 inches tall at the shoulder.

Holstein heifers can be bred at 15 months of age, when they weigh about 800 pounds. It is desirable to have Holstein females calve for the first time between 24 and 27 months of age. Holstein gestation is approximately nine months.

While some cows may live considerably longer, the normal productive life of a Holstein is six years.

Milk Production

Average production for all Holsteins enrolled in official U.S. production-testing programs in 1987 was 17,408 pounds of milk, 632 pounds of butterfat and 550 pounds of protein per year.
References:

Holstein Association, 1 Holstein Place, Brattleboro, VT 05302-0808. Phone: (802) 254-4551.

Photographs:

Hoards Dairyman, Fort Atkinson, WI



Israeli Holstein

Also Known By: Israeli Friesian

In Israel’s quest for breeding a high-yielding dairy cow adapted to prevailing climatic conditions, genetic material from the most different sources was brought in, with the aim of upgrading locally available cattle. Sometimes, imported Dutch bulls were owned and operated cooperatively. The concerted effort for genetic improvement on a broader scale began with the onset of artificial insemination in the mid-forties. The impressive number of Holstein-Friesians imported from the American continent during the fifties and the strict observance of nation-wide breeding plans contributed decisively to the creation of the Israeli-Holstein breed.

Modern Dairy cattle improvement in Israel started in the early twenties with the importation of Friesian bulls from the Netherlands and Germany to upgrade the indigenous dairy cows of the Damascene and Baladi breeds. In 1947,ten Holstein bulls were imported from Canada and they and their sons were heavily used through artificial insemination. From 1950 through 1962 Holstein bulls and cows were imported from the United States. Since 1963 nearly all Israeli dairy cows have been mated to bulls bred locally.

The Israeli-Holstein cow was reached with a series of crosses. Israel first took a Damascus cow and bred it with an imported Dutch bull, thus creating an F1 cross(50%). The offspring was bred with a different imported Dutch bull, creating an R2 cross(75%). This R2, when mated with an Israeli-Dutch bull, created an R2 cross(87.5%) which were bred with other Israeli-Dutch bulls producing later generations of the cross with higher percentages. These crosses were then bred with the Holstein-Friesian bulls which resulted in the typical Israeli-Holstein cow.

There are currently about 110,000 dairy cows in Israel, practically all of which are Israeli Holstein breed. This number has been virtually constant for the last 20 years. About 60% of all cows are concentrated in Kibbuts herds (large units in cooperatively owned and managed farms), while the remainder belong to Moshev herds (family farms)

Reference:

Mason, I.L. 1996. A World Dictionary of Livestock Breeds, Types and Varieties. Fourth Edition. C.A.B International. 273 pp.

Ralph Ginsberg, Milking Managment Adviser, Israel

Photographs:

Ralph Ginsberg, Milking Managment Adviser, Israel

Israeli Red

Also Known By: Simford

The Israeli Red is a synthetic breed of cattle based on Mediterranean origin (native, Turkish and Abushe) crossed with Brahman and Santa Gertrudis. Over the years an upgrading program of Hereford, Angus and Simmental breeds has been carried out. The main goal in the breeding program was to produce a breed, which is:

1. An aggressive forager, with ability to graze a native pasture existing in the arid zones of the Mediterranean.
2. Disease and parasite resistant mainly resistant to Cattle Tick Fever under hot weather conditions.

Breeding program was started in 1960 and for the past 30 years seedstock herd management has been based on organized record keeping and analysis.


Today, main seedstock herd consists of 5,000 (out of 50,000) selected dams with the following record:

* Average mature weight 500 Kg.
* Average weaning weight 280 Kg. (250 days).
* Performance test for postweaning daily gain bulls from the seedstock herd under Central Test Station indicates an average of 1.5 Kg./day.

Reference:

Dr. Meori Rosen, Chief extension Scientist, Beef Production, Ministry of Agriculture, State of Israel

Photographs:

Dr. Meori Rosen, Chief extension Scientist, Beef Production, Ministry of Agriculture, State of Israel

Jersey

The Jersey breed originated on the Island of Jersey, a small British island in the English Channel off the coast of France. The Jersey is one of the oldest dairy breeds, having been reported by authorities as being purebred for nearly six centuries.

The breed was known in England as early as 1771 and was regarded very favorably because of its milk and butterfat production. At that early date, the cattle of Jersey island were commonly referred to as Alderney cattle although the cattle of this island were later referred to only as Jerseys. Jersey cattle were brought to the United States in the 1850′s.

Adaptable to a wide range of climatic and geographical conditions, outstanding Jersey herds are found from Denmark to Australia and New Zealand, from Canada to South America, and from South Africa to Japan. They are excellent grazers and perform well in intensive grazing programs. They are more tolerant of heat than the larger breeds. With an average weight of 900 pounds, the Jersey produces more pounds of milk per pound of body weight than any other breed. Most Jerseys produce far in excess of 13 times their bodyweight in milk each lactation.

The modern Jersey breed is unexcelled in dairy type. Breeders in the United States commonly referred to two distinct types of Jerseys in the past, these being the Island and the American; this distinction is not commonly made at present. It should be recalled that this is a different usage of the word “type” than is usually implied and refers to the general size and quality of the animal rather than to its use for dairy purposes. The Island-type Jerseys excelled in refinement and those qualities that were deemed necessary to win in the show ring. Refinement and beauty of such cattle in mature form led to the marked superiority of cattle imported from the island of Jersey or their direct descendants in winning most of the major awards of the American show ring. The so-called American-type Jerseys were noted much more for production than for beauty. Cattle referred to by this description are usually larger, a bit coarser, and have been bred for years for those qualities that suit them for milk and butterfat production. Some have referred to them as the “Farmer’s” Jersey. Usually after two or three generations in the United States in the hands of the ordinary feeder, the refinement of the Island cattle gives way to the larger and less refined American kind.

In recent years there has been less concern about these type variations; no doubt the program of type classification has tended to reduce the extremes. Additional emphasis on milk production and less stress on butterfat production had, no doubt, resulted in general acceptance of Jersey cows with more size and scale. Recent importations of Jerseys have consisted of larger cattle than many previously brought to the United States. Their offspring have not only been acceptable in type but have also been used advantageously in improving production.

Cows show very marked refinement about their heads and shoulders, carry long, straight top lines, and usually carry out long and level at the rump. For their size, they are usually deep in the body and full and deep in the barrel. There is no more appealing dairy animal than the well-balanced Jersey cow, and although usually somewhat more nervous in disposition than the other dairy cows, she is usually docile and rather easy to manage. Jersey cows usually have an extreme weight range of between 800 and 1200 pounds, but medium-sized cows are usually preferred.

Jersey bulls, while small as compared to the other dairy breeds, are extremely masculine. They are quite muscular about their crests and shoulders and are considerably less refined throughout than are the females. The same general qualities of straight lines and diary conformation as are found in the cows are desired in bulls. They usually range in weight from 1200 to 1800 pounds, but as in the females, medium weights are usually preferred. Jersey bulls are known for having the least docile temperament of the common breeds of cattle. It is folly to trust any dairy bull and particularly Jerseys past eighteen months of age.

Modern Jerseys may be of a wide range in color. There is little preference today between the solid and broken colors although most breeders slightly prefer the cattle with an unbroken color pattern. Most prefer the dark tongue and switch, but this is more a matter of an identification point than a point of discrimination. The color in Jerseys may vary from a very light gray or mouse color to a very dark fawn or a shade that is almost black. Both the bulls and females are commonly darker about the hips and about the head and shoulders than on the body. Most breeders slightly prefer the medium shades of color to the extremes, but nearly all of them realize that type and producing ability are far more important than the shade of color or whether the color is solid or broken.
References:

The American Jersey Cattle Association, 6486 East Street, Reynoldsburg, Ohio 43068-2362 Phone: (614) 861-3636 FAX: (614) 836-8040 Internet: usjersey@iwaynet.net

Briggs, Hilton M and D.M. Briggs. 1980. Modern Breeds of Livestock. Forth Edition, MacMillan Company

Photographs:

The American Jersey Cattle Association

Hoards Dairyman, Fort Atkinson, WI

Limousin
The History of Limousin

The history of Limousin cattle may very well be as old as the European continent itself. Cattle found in cave drawings estimated to be 20,000 years old in the Lascaux Cave near Montignac, France, have a striking resemblance to today’s Limousin.

These golden-red cattle are native to the south central part of France in the regions of Limousin and Marche. The terrain of the homeland has been described as rugged and rolling with rocky soil and a harsh climate. Consequently, the growing of field crops was very difficult at best and emphasis was placed on animal agriculture. Limousin cattle, as a result of their environment, evolved into a breed of unusual sturdiness, health and adaptability. This lack of natural resources also enabled the region to remain relatively isolated and the farmers free to develop their cattle with little outside genetic interference.

During these early times of animal power, Limousin gained a well-earned reputation as work animals in addition to their beef qualities. Rene Lafarge reported in 1698, “Limousin oxen were universally renown and esteemed both as beasts of burden and beef cattle.” At the end of their work life, these animals were then fattened for slaughter.

Traditionally, French cattle were kept in a confinement or semi-confinement situation. However, Limousin cattle spent the majority of their time outdoors in the harsh climate of the region. This was a source of great pride to the breeders. The cows calved year round, outdoors, to bring in a regular source of income and the heifers were bred to calve at three years of age. In the winter, the entire herd was outside and whatever the season, the cattle were handled on a daily basis.
French Developments

Once in the 1700s and again in the mid-1800s, an attempt was made by a small number of French Limousin breeders to crossbreed their cattle in hopes of gaining both size and scale. In 1840, several breeders crossbred their Limousin with oxen of Agenaise variety.

The resulting animals were taller, having more volume of muscling in their hindquarter. Unfortunately, these crossbred cattle proved not to be economical as they needed a larger amount of feed than could be provided in the majority of the region. Only near Limoges, where manure and fertilizers were plentiful and growing field crops was widespread, did these cattle prosper.

Limousin breeders admitted their mistake and then concentrated upon improving the breed through natural selection. A leader in the natural selection movement was Charles de Leobary and his herdsman, Royer. Through a very tough, selective process, these two developed an outstanding herd of “purebred” Limousin. From 1854 to 1896 the de Leobary herd won a total of 265 ribbons at the prestigious Bordeaux Competition, one of France’s finest cattle shows.

Limousin cattle made a deep impression in French cattle shows during the 1850s. The first show wins were at the Bordeaux Fair where Limousin tooksecond and third places. The cattle belonged to the already mentioned de Leobary herd. Furthermore, in 1857, ’58 and ’59, Limousin animals topped other breeds in some of the first carcass competitions at the farm produce competition held at Poissy, near Paris. The reputation of Limousin as meat animals was firmly established. Today, Limousin cattle are still referred to as the “butcher’s animal” in France.

The widespread use of natural selection made it important to record the bloodlines of the outstanding Limousin bulls and females. So, in November of 1886, the first Limousin Herd Book was established. Louis Michel presided over the herd book, the objective of which was to ensure the uniformity of the breed. Michel and his 11 fellow herd book commissioners were extremely rigid in the selections. Between 1887 and 1890, the commission met six times and out of 1,800 animals presented for registration from 150 different farms, only a total of 674 (117 males and 497 females) were accepted for registration.

The formation of the herd book had other important consequences. Once established, the French government then established shows solely for Limousin cattle. As with their counterparts today, these shows provided tremendous exposure for the breed as the many valuable traits of these beef cattle were presented for all to see.

By July of 1914, the total number of animals registered in the herd book was 5,416. It is interesting to note the herd book has been reorganized twice since it was founded, once in 1923 and again in 1937. Both times these reorganizations were used to redefine the characteristics of the breed, making the breeders more selective, this improving the quality of the animals.

Through the late 1800s and early 1900s, Limousin breeders paid close attention to morphological characteristics as the breed developed. The medium size of these cattle as compared to other European breeds was, and is still, an outstanding breed trait. They also selected for the dark golden-red hide with wheat colored underpinnings. French records also show a great deal of emphasis was stressed upon deep chest, a strong top-line, well-placed tailhead and strongly-muscled hindquarter. The end result was an efficient, hardy, adaptable animal that was extremely well-suited for its only intended purpose – to produce meat.
Across the Atlantic

As the breed developed in France, cattlemen in North America were looking to Europe to improve their native beef cattle here in the United States. In the late 1800s, English breeds such as the Hereford, Shorthorn and Angus were imported and crossed on native cattle, most of them of Spanish background. In the early 1900s Charolais were imported into Cuba and Mexico and were first introduced into the United States in the early 1930s.

The acceptance of Charolais, combined with the use of crossbreeding as a tool to increase beef production, lead to the investigation of many other Europeanbreeds, including Limousin, by North American cattlemen. One of the first exposures in this country concerning Limousin cattle was in the early 1960s in an issue of the Western Livestock Journal when a Canadian wrote of his impressions after returning from a trip to France. As more cattlemen traveled toEurope, they came back talking about an impressive “new” beef breed they had seen…Limousin.

Cattle from France were not eligible for importation into the United States, as France was a hoof-and-mouth disease affected area. However, the Canadian government did agree to accept French cattle after they had successfully completed a strict three-step quarantine program. Before the cattle left France they were held in a three-month quarantine, then once arriving in Canada they were kept on Grosse Isle of the cost of Nova Scotia or St. Pierre Island in the Gulf of St. Lawrence for another three-month period. Finally, the cattle were required to successfully pass a 30-day “on the farm” quarantine. Once they passed the quarantine, semen could be shipped throughout North America.

The first Limousin imported to Canada was Prince Pompadour, a son of Baron bred at the highly-respected Pompadour Estate of France. Through the efforts of Adrien de Moustier of France (later to found Bov Import, Inc.) and others, the bull arrived in November of 1968. An impressive bull, Prince Pompadour had been selected by noted French breeder Emil Chastanet as a herd bull for his operation. After his arrival, Prince Pompadour was brought to the United States to be part of Limousin exhibitions at various cattle shows and did much to draw attention to the breed.

The first Limousin bulls imported permanently into the United States did not arrive until the fall of 1971. Until this time, the Canadian government had not permitted any Limousin bulls to leave the country except for short periods for exhibition purposes, and then only if the owners posted a large bond that was refunded when the animal returned to Canada. The first U.S. import, Kansas Colonel, was born and raised in Canada and was imported by Bob Haag of Topeka, Kansas, for a group of Kansas Limousin breeders.

The first Limousin semen was available from Prince Pompadour in July of 1969. After being evaluation by J.J. “Bud” Prosser at the International Beef Breeders facility near Denver, semen was picked up by Colonel E.J. Geeson of Agate, Colorado. A retired Air Force officer, Geeson used the semen on his Angus cows on his ranch east of Denver.

After the importation of Prince Pompadour to Canada, another group of Limousin bulls followed in 1969. This shipment contained Decor, Diplomate, Dandy, Prairie Danseur and Prairie Pride. These bulls were the base upon which the breed began its long climb up, finding good acceptance on the part of cattlemen.
Forming the Foundation

As the first Limousin cattle arrived in North America, cattlemen interested in the breed realized the need for an organization to promote and develop the breed in the United States and Canada. At one of these meetings in the spring of 1968 at the Albany Hotel in Denver, fifteen cattlemen formed the North American Limousin Foundation (NALF).

First president of NALF was Bob Purdy of Buffalo, Wyoming. A well-respected cattleman, Purdy was a strong advocate of performance testing. Through his experience with Charolais, Purdy knew many of the pitfalls to be avoided in the early days. Purdy was a capable administrator who gave solid leadership to the Foundation during its infancy in the three years he served as president.

The man responsible for the actual day-to-day running of NALF was the first executive vice president, Dick Goff of Denver. A journalist by profession, Goff’s advertising agency had worked for the Charolais association, and had seen first-hand the development of a new breed association. He knew the first three to five years of a breed association’s existence were extremely critical and financial stability was the key to survival.

As a result, Goff was largely responsible for the firm financial base upon which NALF was built. He developed the idea to sell 100 founder memberships in the NALF for $2,500 apiece. Each founder member was entitled to a prorated share of Prince Pompadour semen, all of which was owned by NALF. All but one of the memberships was sold and the combination of excellent cattle, leadership and financial stability gave the Limousin breed a tremendous start in North America.

From the initial concentrations in Oklahoma, Texas, South Dakota and western Canada, the Limousin breed has expanded across North America. The tremendous carcass traits of the breed have attracted the full attention of the entire beef industry. In addition to solid prices for breeding stock, feeders are paying a premium for percentage Limousin because of their excellent feed efficiency and packers are asking for Limousin by name.

Percentage Limousin steers have had unparalleled success in the show ring. Limousin steers have one such prestigious shows as Denver, Fort Worth, Houston, San Antonio, and Ak-Sar-Ben, not to mention number state and county fairs. Besides these on-foot champions, Limousin steers have won many carcass shows, living up to their reputation as the “Carcass Breed.”

NALF has grown from the original 99 founder members to nearly 12,000 active lifetime members who have registered over 1 million head of Limousin cattle.
Limousin Fits the Bill

In 2002, NALF realized the need to provide cattlemen with the option of flexibility in their crossbreeding programs. Recognizing the breed complimentarity of Limousin and Angus, NALF introduced Lim-Flex, a pedigreed Limousin-Angus hybrid. Producers now have genetic options to fit every scenario, from fullblood or purebred Limousin for a “full-shot” of muscle and efficiency, to Lim-Flex hybrids for a “blended-shot” of Limousin with added marbling and maternal from Angus (black or red). With Lim-Flex, breeders can offer a “just-right” shot of Limousin to meet the needs of most any crossbreeding program.

Lim-Flex stands for Limousin with muscle and efficiency, along with flexibility – the most significant strength of this powerful genetic blend:

Flexible seedstock for simple, easily managed crossbreeding

Flexible market progeny that consistently hit dressing percent, along with yield and quality grade targets for mainstream, case-ready markets

Flexible females adapted for efficiency across a wide range of environments

NALF’s UltraMate Xbreeding System outlines how to use registered Limousin and Lim-Flex seedstock on different types of commercial cows to hit end-product and maternal targets. This breeder’s guide to Lim-Flex focuses on how to record necessary pedigree and breed composition data required for registry, as well as other policies for Lim-Flex animals.

From humble beginnings in France many centuries ago, these golden-red beef cattle have now achieved acceptance here in the United States as a major contributor to a more efficient beef industry.

Limousin is the most progressive continental breed registry in the United States. Limousin is the leader in Muscle Growth Efficiency and is the ideal complement to British-based cows.

Breed Registries and Societies
Reference:

North American Limousin Foundation, P.O. Box 4467, Englewood, CO 80155, Phone: (303) 220-1693.
Photographs:

North American Limousin Foundation, P.O. Box 4467, Englewood, CO 80155, Phone: (303) 220-1693

Ongole
Origin

The Ongole breed, like other breeds of cattle in India, takes its name from the geographical area in which it is produced. It is also called the Nellore breed for the reason that formerly Ongole Taluk, a division of a district, was included in the Nellore district, but now it is included in the Guntur district. The area is part of the Andhra Pradesh in India.

This breed is included among the gray-white cattle of the north, having white or gray color, stumpy horns and a long coffin-shaped skull. It has a great similarity with the Gaolao breed of Madhya Predesh and also has a resemblance to the Bhagnari type of cattle in the north of India. This similarity is not surprising in view of the fact that these breeds lie along the path taken by the Rig Vedic Aryans in their march from the north to the south of India.

It is claimed that the finest specimens of the breed are found in the area between the Gundalakama and Alluru rivers in the Ongole and Kandukur taluks, and also in the villages of Karumanchi, Nidamanur, Pondur, Jayavaram, Tungtoor and Karvadi and along the banks of River Musi. They are also famous from the taluks of Vinukonda and Narasraopet.
Characteristics

The Ongoles are large-sized animals with loosely knit frames, large dewlaps which are fleshy and hang in folds extending to the navel flap, and slightly pendulous sheaths. They have long bodies and short necks; limbs are long and muscular. The forehead is broad between the eyes and slightly prominent. Eyes are elliptical in shape with black eyelashes and a ring of black skin about 1/4 to 1/2 inch wide around the eyes. Ears are moderately long, measuring on an average for 9 to 12 inches, and slightly drooping. Horns are short and stumpy, growing outwards and backwards, thick at the base and firm without cracks. In some animals the horns are loose; this is probably due to the horn core not growing well.

The hump in the males is well-developed and erect and filled up on both sides and not concave. The skin is of medium thickness, mellow and elastic and often shows black mottled markings. The popular color is white. The male has dark gray markings on the head, neck and hump and sometimes black points on the knees and on the pasterns of both the fore and hind legs. A red or red and white animal of typical conformation is occasionally seen. They have a white switch of the tail, white eyelashes, a flesh colored muzzle, light colored hooves, dark gray marking on the hindquarters and dark mottle appearance on the body.

Ongole cattle are efficiently used in their native home for both work and milk production. They are usually docile and the bulls are very powerful, suitable for heavy plowing or car work but are not considered to be suitable for fast work or trotting purposes. The cows are fair milkers.

All animals currently used for food and agriculture and the result of Domestication from wild progenitor species like their wild relatives. These Domestic species are continuously evolving albeit at an accelerated rate due to human activity. In general the history of cattle followed the history of man, where even either primitive or modern. Man has migrated he has tended to bring with him his own breeds of cattle. During vedic period many of the useful animals have been brought under service of man, particularly

Milk became useful since Rigvedic period. The selected those animals species that are having vigor, inborn nearness, social ability and docility. The evolutionary process has been accelerated in the domestic species particularly cattle, as a consequence of 10,000 years of selection by human, during this period with in the species genetic variation which is essential for the survival of all species, has been partially redistributed in the formation of the large number of unique cattle breeds now exists.

These breeds have adopted too many environments as the breeds spread and have been used to produce different types and combinations. A major group of mammals to be domesticated after caprinae were the large ruminants (Bovinae), which included the humped (Bos indicus) and hump less (Bos Taurus) cattle, yak, mithun, banteng and buffalo. This range of species in the family Bovinae make a very large number of important contributions to food and agriculture, providing just under 30% world meat and 87% world milk. This Bovinae provided the planet with a means of digesting via fermentation. Same types of zebu animals are present from the time of Indus Valley civilization dating back to 3000 BC Indian subcontinent is a treasure house of Bos-Indicus Cattle.

Farmers in the breed tract has selected and preserved each successive variation, with the distinct intention of improving and altering a breed, in accordance with a preconceived idea, and by thus adding up variations, often so slight as to be imperceptible to the uneducated. He has effected wonderful changes and improvements in the direction he desired as we see here under in Ongole Breed from 1880. There is a tendency in the breed to grow leggy with sparse light carriage, but their form, temper and endurance earned nearness to the breeders.
Effect of heat loads on Ongole cattle
Radiation:

Solar radiation received from sun is through solar terrestrial. The amount of radiation emitted for a particular location depends on global positioning, latitude, and longitude. Infrared radiation is intense in tropics, having sterilizing effect, stimulates tissues, increases metabolic processes. Non-pigmented skin has a definite hazard. 85% of solar radiated heat is sent back to the environment by the Ongole animal through its white, reflective coat. Diurnal variations such as seasons, humidity, latitude, altitude, influences variation in radiant heat loads. The rest 15% of heat immediately absorbed by the under lying black skin. When the animal has nine blacks, total body skin will be black these cattle reduces heat load through behavioral means, and postural adjustments, also orientation towards sun make it protect its own parts through shade and thus reducing heat loads. Long legs of this breed helps in minimizing absorption of solar radiated heat. Light carriage also helps are exposed to sun.

Conductive and convective heat loads on these cattle transfer between surroundings and direct contact through soil and bedding, drinking water, feeds and fodders. Avoiding lying down stretching its body parts also helps.

Light is the most constant factor having vigor. Light influences on pituitary, shedding of hair on seasons, increase in metabolism, vision. High light intensity decreases cell wall content and increases water-soluble carbohydrates in vegetation and thus influences livestock.

Relative Humidity:

% of moisture in air is humidity. Air moisture content influences animals heat balance particularly in warm climates where evaporative cooling is crucial to homeothermy. High humidity associated with high temperature favors less nutritive value of feeds and fodders, of ten the stock are light colored, with pigmented skins, and shade lovers. These influence humidity aerial movement, transpiration, rainfall and temperature.

Characters associated with hardiness and thriftiness:

* Has the ability to reverse down metabolism during extremes of scarcity.
* Efficient forager and does not force the calf for foraging.
* Fruitful in milk with exact fat percentage to keep the calves at rapid growth.
* Tight sheath and small teats to avoid injuries of grazing animals.
* Sloppy rumps are suitable for quick and hard work, having 4 sacral vertebrae.
* Have more number of bigger, functional, sweat glands per unit area of the skin.
* Having white or light colored, short, sleek, densely, reflecting and glistering coat, which will not attract vectors and dislodge them with insulting character.
* Skin, pigmented, black, mellow, loose, thick and presence of subcutaneous panniculus carnosis muscle, which repels vectors by twitching.
* Highest heat tolerant coefficient.
* Basal metabolic rate low.
* Nutritional uniqueness, ability to convert low protein, high fiber roughage materials into high-grade foodstuffs with the aid of Omasal symbionts, such as thrives and performs well on inferior fodders.
* Crude protein utilization is highest.
* Perform well where even pastures are seasonal, scanty, and sparse.
* Spent much time in grazing even during daytime, seek shade only 3% of their total grazing time.
* Slow to cycle, when under nutritional stress or lactation stress, but response to cycle is immediate when nutrients are plenty.

Ongole Breed Tract:

Originally the breed tract comprises areas where there is no assured or commercial crops, leaving cattle raising as the only profitable proposition by selling bull ghee (Clarified butter), since crops and cultivation are not profitable. The farmers are quite aware of the food, investment, manure, forage, draught animal power and employment linkages, improving through subsistence security, transfer of nutrients, modification of vegetation and finally increasing the human support capacity of the land through Ongole breed of cattle. These cattle raising formed a part of risk education strategy with agriculture, as livestock is a saving account and their calves are interest. The farmer is quite conscious of the herd management policy options on direct costs and indirect costs, breeding, off take, purchase and culling. It clearly indicates this breed is originally dairy, later transformed as dual purpose i.e., dairy and draft animals, presently mostly a draught animal.

The breed tract comprised between rivers Krishna on Northern side, Pennar River on Southern side, nalamalai range of forest on Western side and Coromandai coast on Eastern side lying between 15.00 to 16.10’ east latitude and 79.04’ to 80.02’ north longitude. The rivulets gundlakamma, madigandi, Paleru, Muneru, Musi, Chilakaleru. Whose extensive banks became excellent grazing areas. With population growth and consequent demand for cereals the Brahmini bull selection system has been oriented towards draft characters. The soils are black loam to black clay having large quantities of lime with soil pH of 6.9 to 7.2 most favorable for notification bacteria and luxuriant growth of legumes. Annual rain fall of about 900mm with about 50 rainy days out of which 2/3 roads are from southwest monsoon and 1/3 from northeast monsoon supporting most of the cereal crops. The average ambient temperature of maximum 32 degrees Celsius and minimum of 23.5 degrees Celsius and average relative humidity of 79%.

After formation of Krishna and Godavari Ayacuts during 1850’s with assured irrigation and increased demand for draft services, the breed tract extended to Krishna, Godavari and northern circars. Original tract is for breeding and extended tract for breeding and rearing, further ceded districts and Nalgonda and Mohaboob Nagar districts as rearing tracts. Extension of breed tract forced for 2 reasons. The demand for draft services from the area and generally the same species need the same resources and thus are bound to complete for the same, except when they are colonizing a new habitat, as such expansion of the tract.

Ongole Cattle Breeding:

Before organized efforts of the colonial rule, the institution of Brahmini Bull system in the ongole area has substantially improved the breed by avoiding inferior breeding and inbreeding. It has been the custom in the area that dedicating a young bull selected by a village committee funded by village rich men or the local diety and the bull being branded at a ceremony either with Sanku, Chakra, Trisul, then becomes common property and Brahmini bull is the property of the village and covers the village herd, this is how a small farmer provided the stud services. The changes in cropping pattern from cereals to commercial crops like chillis, and Tobacco during the 1930’s and cotton during 1960’s have badly affected the breeds feed resources.

With the introduction and expansion of artificial insemination programs rapidly has resulted in affecting the distribution of breeding bulls under various schemes have been stopped and there is decay in the institution of Brahmini Bull system which primarily supported the breed for centuries. During 1960’s introduction of Taurus breeds through aid programs has helped large scale indiscriminate breeding in the valuable Ongole herds. Like all other resources, the livestock wealth should also to be carefully and properly utilized and preserved. Planners in an attempt to improve milk production in Ongole cattle did many mistakes. One major error was the perception that output reflects efficiency, Hence the use of exotics on Ongoles to improve indigenous stock. Output was very often the main criteria for which a breed was imported. Finally after sinking in a lot of money and time, we could learn that genetics is only one and often not the main tool that can ensure greater efficiency of output. Husbandry, survival, health, reproduction efficiency of feed utilization parameters becomes important. In a craze for cross breeding the excellent government herds built up for decades were also not spared by the planners. The saying that breeding policy should depend on animal, existing production potential, anticipated, goals, environment, man and economic development rather than prejudice, taste and trivial dictates.

Character associated with disease resistance:

* Premunity high.
* Reticulo endothelial system well developed.
* Resistant to eye cancer.
* Through their coating, insulating, secretary characters are more resistant to tick born diseases.
* Zebum secretion is fly repellent.
* Flexible tail tip, having cartilage in place of last 3 or 4 vertebrae helps as a brush to repel vectors.

The effects of climatologically variables on Ongoles are varied. High external heat load due to both radiant and high air temperature exposure depends on degree, and duration. On acute exposure the animal tries to accommodate rather than combat. As a routine the metabolic heat and the catabolic heat produced with in the body also needs to be eliminated. When heat loss mechanism reaches its maximum values the animal resorts to methods of reducing heat production in an effort to achieve homoeothermic. Reduction in calarogenic hormones accompanies decrease in Basal Metabolic rate, voluntary feed intake, muscular and ruminal activity and changes in release of gonadotrophic hormone and thus reduced sexual activity. Ability of animals to maintain core temperature in physiological adaptability and the ability to maintain production/reproduction/growth rates in productive adaptability. These two are often at variance. Thus selection of traits of physiological adaptability is often incompatible with improvement of production and consequently they are undesirable. Mere reproductive opportunism is generally short lived, if the adaptive ness of the organism is not maintained and almost invariably proves self-limiting. This is not the case with the Ongoles. Long range fitness of ongole cattle population depends on adaptation, through the stability, variability and the rate of environmental changes helped through domestication by the farmers as they are treated as family pets. Selection of Ongoles, which attain homeothermy mostly by heat loss mechanism without resorting to reducing the heat production would be those of choice from economic view point.

Soil pH:

No larger breeds of livestock were ever bred in acid pH soils. The soil pH being 7.2 in tract most favorable for legumes. So it increased muscle protein and skeletal size. Cattle in acid pH soils are small in size and are shade lovers.

Feeding:

The fodder crops, grasses and trees that supported the breed for centuries need to be enlightened. The fodder crops either grain or crops or crop residues available from sorghum, zeamays, crotalaria, macrotylma, vigna, cicer, pennisestum, sataria, oryza, kollaganjeru, fodder trees like acacia, azaridachta and fiscus are also used to shade trees. The fodder grasses that were grown naturally on rivers and rivulets banks, private grazing lands and common grazing lands include andropogan, iseilema, indigofera grasses species has maintained this breed for centuries. After formation of ayacut the Ongole cattle need to go to forest for grazing from June/July and return only after December/January, surviving predation and theft later attending to threshing operations of cereals. The migration of population from rural to urban areas, changes in society and pressure on land working against the interest of Ongole cattle, since they are located specific the available poor, scanty, sparse, and seasonal fodders which are low in protein and high in fiber need to be improved by inter-cultivation of legumes, intercropping, chaffing, treatment by way of extensive use of agro industrial bye products should be extensively used.

Characters associated with self-reliance:

* Enduring and estimable.
* Docile but alert.
* Intelligent and respond well for treatment if handled with love, skill, and care.
* Athletic in nature, with majestic appearance, head high, square walk and quick step, giving noble but heavy look.
* Try to move in groups to avoid predators.
* Highest ability to self-preserve and longevity is more than 15 years.
* Long bodied with big skeletal size and with ability to gain weight more perceptible after 2 years of age and massive.
* Lack in heart girth due to preponderance of draught type.
* Vitality and Vigor unique in young ones.
* Outstanding Mothering ability.
* Highest combining ability for cross breeding and formation of new breeds.
* Highest rustling ability to walk long distances in search of food and water and to pace with the herds.
* Marked tolerance to direct sunlight and radiation.
* Loose skin, hump, dewlap and other appendages contribute 12% excess surface area per unit weight over Taurus breeds.
* Outward disposition of horns helps defend from predators.
* Have highest coetaneous and lowest respiratory heat loss as such panting is less.
* Have highest multiple ability of adaptation for climate fodder and pathogens.
* Sensitiveness, intelligence and shyness make them more independent and less dependent on man, more energetic and resourceful.
* Reproductive uniqueness, higher reproduction rates and more number of lifetime calves high calf survival rates.
* Calving ease and minimum dystokias, with more birth weight of cattle.

Skin:

The skin covers body and provides protection literally a thermostat for the body. Heat flows from core organs like brain, heart, liver, spleen, intestines, and lungs to surface of body and from surface it should be sent out to environment through radiation, conduction and convection. Skin contains sebascous and sweat glands, muscles, roots of hair, fallacies and capillaries. When all nine blacks are present, the whole skin is pigmented and black. The presence of subcutaneous “panniculus carnosis” muscle helps in repelling vectors through twitching. When sweating/respiratory heat loss is 6 in zebus where as it is only 4 in Taurus breeds. Water resorption in kidney and colon is double that of the Taurus. Though skin studies were done in 10 indigenous breeds in India no work was done in Ongoles, but the skin type may lie between type 1 and type 3. Skin being highly vascular more heat is sent out as sensible heat loss or diffusion heat loss. In Ongoles evaporative and sweat contribute much heat loss.

Ongoles cattle skin secretes zebum, which filters ultraviolet rays. Due to high vascular they bleed profusely if punctured and wounds will heal quickly. Being black in color the 15% of solar heat allowed by coat to pass on is at once absorbed by the skin. Our farmers are so intelligent that umbrellas are black in color but in villages they used to stitch white cloth over the black cloth on the analogy of the structure of Ongole cattle i.e. white external coat and black underlying skin. During evolutionary process the body temperature has been increased, at the same time tolerance for that temperature failed to take place in male gametes. This was circumvented through effective thermoregulation mechanism of tests.

Reference:

Joshi, N.R., Phillips, R.W. (1953) Zebu Cattle of India and Pakistan, FAO Agriculture Studies No. 19, Publ. By FAO, Rome, 256 pp.

Dr. A. Madhusudhana, 74,Veterinary Colony, Ring Road, VIJAYAWADA, ANDHRA PRADESH, INDIA, PIN 520008, Phone 91866-453707 email: adusumillimrao2002@yahoo.com

Photographs:

Dr. A. Madhusudhana, 74,Veterinary Colony, Ring Road, VIJAYAWADA, ANDHRA PRADESH, INDIA, PIN 520008, Phone 91866-453707 email: adusumillimrao2002@yahoo.com



Red Angus

Seven innovative breeders chose to use Red Angus in 1954 to establish the industry’s first performance registry. Throughout its history, the Red Angus Association of America has gone on to make all the tough choices, and all the right choices. In recent years, the Red Angus breed has attained a high level of popularity from commercial cattlemen, and for all the right reasons.

The Origin of “Angus”

Like most modern American beef breeds, the Red Angus breed had its beginning in Europe. In the eighth-century, according to some authorities, hardy Norsemen raiding the coasts of England and Scotland brought with them a small, dun-colored hornless cattle which interbred with black native Celtic cattle of inland Scotland, which had upright horns. A naturally polled black breed was produced, which roughly corresponded to the black Aberdeen Angus of today, although it was a considerably smaller-bodied animal. The polled characteristic was very slow to spread inland, and for almost a thousand years was confined principally to the coastal areas of England and Scotland.

Eric L.C. Pentecost, the noted English breeder of Red Angus cattle, offers a specific and logical explanation for the introduction of the red coloration into the Aberdeen Angus breed. In the eighteenth century, the black Scottish cattle were too light to provide sufficiently large draught oxen, so larger English longhorns, predominantly red in color, were brought in and crossed with the black native polled breed. The resultant offspring were all black polled animals, since black is a dominant color, and red a recessive one. However, all carried the red gene. Subsequent interbreeding produced an average of one red calf in four, in accordance with Mendel’s law of heredity.

Angus -Red or Black

Early in the development of the Aberdeen Angus, Hugh Watson of Keillor, Scotland arbitrarily decided that black was the proper color for the breed, and thereby started a fashion. He might well have chosen red instead. Leon J. Cole and Sara V. H. Jones of the University of Wisconsin Agricultural Experiment Station published a pamphlet in 1920 on “The Occurrence of Red Calves in Black Breeds of Cattle” which contained this pertinent paragraph:

“One more point should be emphasized, namely that the red individuals appearing in such stock (Aberdeen Angus)…are just as truly ‘purebred’ as their black relatives, and there is no reason why, in all respects save color, they should not be fully as valuable. The fact that they are discarded while the blacks are retained is simply due to the turn of fortune that black rather than red became established fashion for the Aberdeen Angus breed. Had red been the chosen color, there would never have been any trouble with the appearance of blacks as off-color individuals, since red-to-red breeds true.”

The preceding paragraph, written more than three decades prior to the establishment of the Red Angus Association of America, shows a true appreciation of the basic strengths of the reds. This is emphasized by the current revival and popularity of the red strain of Aberdeen Angus throughout the world.

Early Angus Herdbooks

The first Aberdeen Angus herdbook, published in 1862 in Scotland, entered both reds and blacks without distinction. This practice is continued in Britain today, as is the case throughout most of the world. Aberdeen Angus was introduced into America in the 1870s and soon attained high popularity. The first American herd books, published in 1886 and 1888 respectively, made no record as to the color of individual animals. In 1890, twenty-two reds were registered in the American Aberdeen Angus Herdbook of some 2,700 individuals entered that year. Finally, the reds and other colors were barred from registration altogether after 1917. This severe discrimination against the red color in an effort to assure a pure black strain brought a marked decline in the number of red calves born in American herds.

Rebirth of “Red” Angus

Various cattlemen throughout the United States understood the outstanding values of the reds. In 1945, the first of these cattlemen started selecting and breeding reds cropped from the best black Aberdeen Angus herds in America. By 1954, a sufficient number of herds had been established to form a breeder’s organization known as the “Red Angus Association of America.”

With a temporary headquarters in Sheridan, Wyoming, seven innovative cattle breeders created the Red Angus Association as the first performance breed registry in the United States. In August of 1954, the Association’s first president, Waldo Forbes, Sr., summed-up this vision of the founding members:

“The policy of the (Red Angus) Association is to discourage the more artificial practices in purebred cattle production… and to place its faith instead in objective tests, consisting for the most part of comparisons within herds of factors of known economic importance and known heritability… By making this an integral part of the registration system, Red Angus breeders feel that even faster progress can be made toward the ultimate goal of more efficient beef production.”

From the beginning, performance data was required for registration for all cattle. The ultimate goal was to initiate a system to objectively evaluate and select cattle based on traits of economic importance.

The Red Angus Association of America

The RAAA has long been noted for its farsighted vision of beef production. Over a variety of fronts Red Angus has either led the industry, or been an early adopter of new technologies. This maverick attitude allowed the RAAA to adopt philosophies and technologies that were deemed too risky or unconventional by other associations. Here is a sample of some visionary policies enacted by the RAAA:

A Leader in the Performance Movement

In 1954, when the Association took this bold move to build a “performance registry”, the scientific community had not even settled on using 205 days to serve as the age which weaning weights would be adjusted to. Although collecting and turning in weaning weights has become second nature for Red Angus breeders, very few associations require performance data as a criteria for registration even today when the value and necessity of the performance data has been so clearly demonstrated.

A Leader in Open A.I.

Artificial Insemination has proven to be one of the most powerful tools in the beef industry’s genetic progress. However, as this technology became available, most breed associations enforced strict regulations making the technology impractical for many breeders until the 1970’s. However, the RAAA in 1954 set its own course in which A.I. was open and unrestricted within the Red Angus breed.

A Leader in Performance Data in the Showring

In the decade of the nineties, several breeds have started the use of objective data in the showring as an additional tool for the judge, besides the traditional visual appraisal of animals. Red Angus was the first to incorporate performance data in the showring, holding the first “performance” show in 1956. Although Red Angus is not known as a “show” breed, the Association does sponsor a National Show each year. How is it run? You guessed it, the same as in 1956, with the judge being provided all pertinent objective information such as EPDs.

A Leader in the Promotion of Crossbreeding

As early as 1961, the RAAA developed a pamphlet promoting crossbreeding. This was approximately ten years prior to the industry even starting to accept crossbreeding as a tool for commercial cow/calf production. In 1970, Red Angus continued its industry leadership by starting and promoting an F-1 program. 1999 marked another first as the RAAA successfully spearheaded a joint-breed promotion extolling the advantages of heterosis.

A Leader in Offering an Open Registry

In 1980, the RAAA broke ranks from the other British breeds by instituting a category registration system. This far sighted program still kept the 100%, Category 1-A cattle separated, but it additionally allowed breeders to develop purebred, Category 1-B cattle through a process of breeding-up. Furthermore, by instituting a Category II and III, the Association is able to maintain a performance registry for foundation animals and composites.

A Leader in Focusing on Commercial Customers

Red Angus has always prided itself as the first breed that focused its primary attention on customers — the commercial cow/calf producers of the United States. In keeping with this focus, the American Red Angus Magazine is sent to all Red Angus bull customers. The Association also started a Commercial Marketing Program in 1994. Believed to be the second such program in the industry, it offers a wide range of services designed to enhance the profitability of producers utilizing Red Angus genetics in their commercial operations.

A Leader in Total Herd Reporting

In the tradition of being the true “performance breed”, the Association again broke ranks with the other breed associations when they implemented an inventory based fee structure and reporting system in 1995. Total Herd Reporting (THR) requires the production of every registered Red Angus female to be accounted for every year, as well as the performance of every Red Angus calf raised through weaning. If a cow and her calf are not accounted for in a given year, the cow is removed from the registry.

A Leader in Evaluating Fertility

The RAAA has led the industry with its commitment to objectively describing traits related to reproduction and sustained fertility. The first of this new class of EPDs was Red Angus’ Stayability estimate. This EPD ranks animals with regard to the probability their daughters will continue producing in the herd past six years of age. The development of of a new Heifer Pregnancy EPD expands Red Angus’ commitment in this vital area.

A Leader in Genotypic Certification

In 1995, Red Angus unveiled the industry’s first genotypic and source identified program, the Feeder Calf Certification Program (FCCP). The innovative FCCP has the honor of being the first program of its kind to be USDA Process Verified, certifying a calf’s link to the “Angus” gene pool.

A Leader in Value Based Marketing

Red Angus has been at the forefront of the industry’s efforts to move toward a system of value based marketing. The Association is believed to be the first breed association to offer its members and commercial customers a value-based pricing grid with a major packing company.

Leadership Has Made A Difference

Red Angus are Angus; yet the Red Angus breeders’ history of leadership and innovation have made a profound difference in the red strain. They have avoided the short-term fads that have negatively affected so many other breeds. Coupled with the long-term commercial focus of the membership, the Red Angus gene pool also offers many advantages. Red Angus provides a consistent source of traditional Angus traits, including carcass quality, maternal characteristics, calving ease, and moderate size. In addition, Red Angus offer uniformity, good disposition, and an outstanding appetite.

Today, Red Angus are seeing unparalleled popularity both in the U.S. and internationally. In fact, the growing notoriety of the breed is bringing worldwide demand for breeding stock from South Africa, Australia and South America, where the majority of the cattle are red in color. This has led Red Angus to become the leading U.S. beef breed in semen exports. In the U.S., the number of Red Angus has tripled from the mid-1980’s through the mid-1990’s. In Canada, where red and black Angus cattle are registered together (which is the case in most countries), the number of red cattle registered is approximately the same as the black strain.

The Future

Due to the numerous natural advantages with which the Red Angus breed is endowed, and based off the heritage and continued philosophy of the Red Angus Association of America, it appears that a great breed is coming into its own. The future of the breed as the common denominator in progressive cattle producers’ crossbreeding systems is unlimited. As Joseph Givhan, founding RAAA member, shared in his early publication on the breed’s history…

“Here is a noble breed that will never die, destined to increase and flourish. It shall cover the grazing lands of

the earth and forever enrich the husbandry of mankind.”



Reference:

Red Angus Association of America, 4201 I-35 North, Denton, Texas 76207-7443, Phone: (940) 387-3502.

Photographs:

Red Angus Association of America, Denton, Texas



Red Brangus

Red Brangus, produced by a mating of black Angus cows and grey Brahman bulls, got their start in the early 1930′s. Cattlemen noticed that the crossbred calves from the bottom end of the herd and at the back pasture came smaller, grew faster and had more meat than the British purebreds popular at the time. That wasn’t enough for these far-sighted beef producers, however, They spent the next 20 years making sure that the results of these matings were repeatable and predictable.

Since that time those who have joined forces with that group have dedicated themselves to the production of profitable, functional cattle that produce the lean, tasty beef today’s consumer demands.

The breed has grown from its Central and South Texas beginnings to a mainstay in commercial herds across the United States. Purebred breeders have sprung up in far away places like South Africa and several South American countries. That growth has been natural, as genuine interest in the productive capabilities of the breed brought about natural, progressive expansion.
Breed Associations and Registries

Reference:

Publications, American Red Brangus Association, 3995 E. Highway 290, Dripping Springs, Texas 78620. Phone: (512) 858-7285

Photographs:

American Red Brangus Association, Dripping Springs, Texas



Santa Gertrudis

About 1910 the King Ranch of Kingville, Texas, one of the largest ranches in the United States, became interested in the possibilities of using Brahman cattle to improve the performance of the range cattle in their area. Tom O’Connor, who obtained some Bos indicus cattle from the Pierce Ranch in Pierce, Texas, gave a half blood Shorthorn-Brahman bull to the King Ranch. He was mated with a group of purebred Shorthorn females. All male calves from this cross but one, a red bull called Chemmera, were castrated and the heifers were turned out with Shorthorn bulls. In the fall of 1918 about sixty descendants of the O’Connor bull and his son were placed in a high quality pasture and their performance was such that the Kings Ranch became interested in crossbreeding Shorthorns and Brahmans.

Since no purebred Brahmans were available, the King Ranch secured fifty-two of the best three-year-old bulls that they could obtain from the Pierce herd. These bulls were three-fourths and seven-eighths Brahman. The bulls were divided among eight different herds with a total of approximately 2,500 Shorthorn cows. Two bulls were specifically selected and pasture mated to fifty cows each. These bulls were referred to as the “Chiltipin” bull and the “Vinotero” bull. One of the females in the Vinotero bull’s group was a milk cow with one-sixteenth Brahman blood that she carried as a descendant of the O’Connor bull through his son Chemmera. The result of this mating was a bull called Monkey, who became the foundation sire of the Santa Gertrudis. All present day Santa Gertrudis descend from Monkey.

The name of the Santa Gertrudis breed is from Rincon de Santa Gertrudis, the name of the original land grant purchased by Captain Richard King from the heirs of Juan Mendiola. This land grant is where the first headquarters of the King Ranch was established.

In 1940, the United States Department of Agriculture recognized the Santa Gertrudis as a purebred.

Modern Santa Gertrudis cattle are approximately five-eighths Shorthorn and three-eighths Brahman. A deep cherry-red color has been established in the breed. The breed shows a relatively high degree of both heat and tick resistance. Their characteristics include ease of calving, good mothering ability and abundant milk supply. They also show very little evidence of a hump and have improved beef quality over most purebred Brahmans. Steers can be turned off at any age depending on environment and conditions, and are noted for their weight for age and ability to achieve high weight gains both on pasture and in feedlots.

There were 283 herds recorded in Volume I of the Herd Book. The King Ranch herd was designated as the Santa Gertrudis Foundation Herd. Other herds that had attained the purebred status by continuous grading up were designated as Foundation Herds. An official classifier of the Association inspects Santa Gertrudis and classifies the females as either certified or accredited and certified for bulls, for those animals meeting the classification requirements. Animals that do not meet the minimum requirements are rejected.

Reference:

Briggs, Hilton M & Dinus M. Briggs. 1980. Modern Breeds of Livestock. Fourth Edition, MacMillian Company

King Ranch, P.O. Box 1090, Kingsville, TX 78364-1090, Phone (512) 595-4150

Santa Gertrudis Breeders International, P.O. Box 1257, Kingsville, TX 78363

Australian Meat and Livestock Corporation, 227 Elizabeth Street, Sydney, NSW 2000 Postal Address: Box 4129, GPO Sydney, NSW 2001. Phone: (02) 260-3111 Fax: (02) 267-6620

Photographs:

Santa Gertrudis Breeders International, P.O. Box 1257, Kingsville, TX 78363

Handbook of Australian Livestock, Australian Meat & Livestock Corporation,1989, 3rd Edition

Shorthorn

The Shorthorn Breed of Cattle originated on the northeastern coast of England in the counties of Northcumberland, Durham, York, and Lincoln. These counties all touch the North Sea and lie between the Cheviot Hills and the middle part of England. The first real development of the Shorthorn breed took place in the valley of the Tees River. This river, the valley of which is so well known in the development of the breed, lies between Durham and York counties, and the large cattle that inhabited this fertile valley early became known as Teeswater cattle. In addition to having acquired a reputation for producing excellent cattle, the Tees River Valley excelled in crops, pastures, and generally high plane of agriculture.

Origin

Foundation Stock. North England is said to have been the home of cattle for centuries. Sinclair 1 suggests the small Celtic short-horned ox was found in England at the time of the Roman invasion and that later, cattle were introduced from northern Europe by the English, Danes, and others. By the 17th century well-known types of cattle existed in England, one of which was the “pied” stock of Lincolnshire, which was said to have been more white than colored, and the other red stock of Somerset and Gloucestershire. There existed in Holderness, a district of Yorkshire, cattle that resembled in size, shape, and color many of the cattle that were found in northern Europe at that time. At what time cattle had been introduced into England or by whom they were brought in is not definitely known. The cattle were said to have taken on flesh readily and would fatten into heavy carcasses although their flesh was coarsely grained and dark in color. Allen 2 states, “The cows were described as large milkers, and the bullocks as attaining a great weight of carcass and extraordinary production of tallow.”

The Early Breeders. As early as 1580 there existed a race of superior short-horned cattle on the Yorkshire estates of the earls and dukes of Northcumberland. The coat color of these cattle varied, but among the colors found were light dun, yellow, yellowish red, deep red, red and white patched, white, and roans.

It was not until after 1750 that accurate records of consequence were kept of the cattle of the area or of the breeding practices that were followed. Between 1730 and 1780 many eminent breeders had distinguished themselves in their home localities for cattle of improved type and quality. Among those who might be mentioned are Sharter, Pickering, Stephenson, Wetherell, Maynard, Dobinson, Charge, Wright, Hutchinson, Robson, Snowden, Waistell, Richard, Masterman, and Robertson. These men and others recorded pedigrees in the first volume of the English Herd Book, which was not published until 1822, or after most of them were no longer active breeders.

The early breeders of Shorthorn or Teeswater cattle left a heritage with which later breeders could work. The cattle that they developed were usually of considerable size and scale, with wide back and deep, wide forequarters. Their hair and hide were soft and mellow. In addition, they were cattle that had ability at the pail and laid on fat readily under conditions of liberal feeding. It is not to be inferred that these were perfect or ideal cattle as compared to modern standards. They lacked uniformity and symmetry and were often quite prominent at their hooks and shoulder points; other faults, such as narrowness of chest, lack of spring of rib, short rumps, long legs, and unevenness of fleshing, left much to be desired. The ability of these cows to produce a good flow of milk has always been an asset to the breed, and size and scale have never been without merit. Breeders, of course, have striven through the centuries to correct some of the deficiencies that were prevalent in this Tees River stock, and at the same time to retain the most valued characteristics that the breed possessed.

Foundation of the Breed

The Contribution of Robert Bakewell. Robert Bakewell, who was born in Leicestershire in 1726, was a farmer of means who had a great influence on the Shorthorn breed although he never bred Shorthorn cattle. Prior to the time of Bakewell, farmers practiced the breeding of unrelated animals and prevented the mating of animals that were of close relationship. It remained for this animal-breeding enthusiast to demonstrate to the English farmer a revolutionary way to improve livestock. He demonstrated with his Leicester sheep and his long-horned cattle that animals of close relationship could be mated, and if rigid culling was practiced, desirable characteristics could thereby be fixed much more rapidly than by mating unrelated animals. Following the development of this breeding system by Bakewell, we find not only Shorthorn breeders but also breeders of many classes of livestock adopting his methods. Today Robert Bakewell is affectionately referred to, as the “Father of Animal Breeding” although in his time he was considered very eccentric and lacking in mental stability. This was a case of a genius in livestock breeding not being appreciated in his day.

The Colling Brothers. The Colling brothers, Charles and Robert, are often referred to as the founders of the Shorthorn breed of cattle. Other men had previously contributed to the native cattle of the area, but it remained for these two enterprising breeders to develop the first systematic breeding program. Charles Colling resided at Ketton, about four miles northeast of Darlington, in the country of Durham. Darlington had obtained considerable publicity as a market place or “fair” for cattle. Robert Colling settled at Barmpton, which was about a mile closer to the town of Darlington. It was on these two farms that the foundation of the breed was largely laid. About 1783 the Collings visited the home of Bakewell and made a study of his breeding methods.

The system of inbreeding followed in the Colling herd is illustrated in the diagrammed pedigree of Comet (155) in Chart 2-1. This bull was calved in 1804 and created quite a sensation when he sold for $5,000 at public auction. The second calf sired by Favorite (252) was steered and became known as the “Durham Ox.” This beast was fitted for public exhibition and it was shown at the reputed weight of 3,400 pounds. In those days the cattle were exhibited but were not shown, as are our cattle at the present time. They were toured over the country in somewhat of a sideshow exhibition. Mr. Robert Colling reared a free-martin heifer that became famous by the name “The White Heifer that Traveled.” This nonbreeder was sired by Favorite (252) and attained a live weight of 2,300 pounds. The publicity that was accorded the “Durham Ox” and “The White Heifer that Traveled” did much to advertise the new breed of Shorthorn cattle that was just being formally founded.

There is no question but that the herds of the Colling Brothers left their mark on the Shorthorn breed because nearly all Shorthorns in the United States or in Great Britain today trace to their herds in one or more lines. In their herds the bulls Foljambe (263), Favorite (252), and Comet (155) were bred and used, and they also used the great bull Hubback.

The Booth Family. The Booth family was the next to add considerable merit to the Shorthorn Breed. It is not definitely known when Thomas Booth of Killerby, in Yorkshire, began breeding purebred Shorthorn cattle, but it is known that in about 1790 he purchased what might be considered the foundation of his herd. Mr. Booth operated from the estates of Killerby and Warlaby, which were not far apart and only about 15 miles south of Darlington. Consequently he was near the Colling Brothers and drew heavily upon them for foundation bulls. Unlike Mr. Bates, his contemporary as a breeder, Mr. Booth did not go to the Colling herd for females but instead used Colling-bred bulls on rather large females that he purchased from other sources. It is said that he used bulls that were somewhat more refined than the cows to which they were bred. Apparently Mr. Booth was the first breeder to place great stress on fleshing qualities, and, in contrast to Mr. Bates, valued beef almost to the exclusion of milk. He developed an aptitude in his cattle to take on flesh, particularly during the dry period. Because of his stress on thickness of flesh and strength of back and loin, the booth family produced a line of Shorthorns of strictly beef type that had strong constitutions. Mr. Booth seemingly appreciated the Hubback and Favorite breeding more than that of other cattle in the Colling herd, and after securing the type of cattle he wanted, he inbred with much success.

In 1814 Richard Booth, Thomas Booth s son, after studying his father s method of breeding, began breeding Shorthorns. He leased a farm near Studley and later lived at Warlaby. He is said to have improved upon his father s cattle, and he particularly improved the cattle in the forequarters of bred for straighter underlines. In 1819, John Booth, the brother of Richard Booth, began breeding cattle at Killerby. After the establishment of the Royal and Yorkshire Shows in 1839, John Booth exhibited at these shows.

Bates Shorthorns. Thomas Bates was born in Northcumberland in 1775 and was of a good family. In boyhood he was sent to grammar school, spent some time taking more advanced studies, and later was given professional agricultural training. At 25 years of age he leased the extensive estates of Halton Castle but later lived at Ridley Hall and Kirklevington. He made a thorough study of the Colling herd and the cattle they produced and inspected the herds of many other breeders of the time before he decided to lay the foundation for a Shorthorn herd. In establishing his herd Mr. Bates drew very heavily upon the blood of the Collings herd and purchased his first cattle from them in 1800 at what was then regarded as very high prices. In 1804, he purchased the cow Duchess, by Daisy Bull (186), from Charles Colling at a reported price of $500. At that time she was four years of age and in calf to Favorite (252). As will be seen from Chart 2-2, Duchess is a direct descendant of both Favorite and Hubback. This breeding was said to have greatly impressed Mr. Bates, as he claimed she was the only living direct descendant of these famous bulls. When Charles Colling affected his Ketton dispersion, Mr. Bates was on hand and purchased and granddaughter of his original Duchess cow and named her Duchess 3d. She was sired by the $5,000 but Comet (155), who was in turn sired by Favorite (252), and Favorite was also the sire of the dam of Comet, and of the cow Young Phoenix; Duchess and duchess 3d became the foundation of the very famous Duchess family, which is often thought of as synonymous with Bates breeding.

Thomas Bates stressed heavy milking qualities in his cattle, and our present Milking Shorthorns largely stem from his breeding. Thomas Bates might be regarded as the founder of the dual-purpose type of Shorthorn. James Fawcett of Scaleby Castle gave the following description of the Duchess as they were found in the herd of Thomas Bates:

The character of the Duchess at this time is that of good and handsome wide spread cows, with broad backs, projecting loins and ribs, short legs and prominent bosoms. The head was generally inclined rather to be short and wide than long and narrow, with clear eyes and muzzle, the ears rather long and hairy, the horns of considerable length and waxy. They were good milkers and had for the most part a robust healthy appearance. The color was mostly uniformly red, with in many of them, a tendency to white about the flank.

There was low fertility among the duchess females, and in 1831 the Duchess family had produced only 32 cows in 22 years. Thirty-one of these were recorded in the Herd Book. During this period of time all of the Bates herd bulls with the exception of one had been of Duchess blood.

In Speaking of the Duchess cattle, Allen 3 states:

The simple fact was that Duchess cows as a whole, had not been prolific or constant breeders, through abortions and other causes, and whenever they passed a year or two without breeding, he fed off and slaughtered them. The bulls that descended from them showed no lack of virility, and Bates still contended that the tribe had increased in their fineness of quality, were admirable feeders, and good milkers when breeding.

In 1831 Mr. Bates was searching for some females of Colling breeding and spied the bull Belvedere (1706) looking through a barn door at the farm of a Mr. Stephenson, and purchased the bull for $250. Belvedere was a yellow-roan bull of large scale with heavy shoulders and a mean disposition, but he was a bull of mellow hide. He was used freely on the Duchess females of the Bates herd, and was the sire of Duchess 34th, who was bred back to her sire to produce Duke of Northumberland (1940), the greatest breeding bull but was also shown to the Championship of England.

1 James Sinclair, History of Shorthorn Cattle, Vinton & company, Ltd., London, 1907.
2 Lewis F. Allen, Shorthorn Cattle, United Sates Department of Agriculture Report, 1878.
3 Lewis F. Allen, Shorthorn Cattle, United States Department of Agriculture Report, 1878.
Registries and Breed Associations
Reference:

Briggs, H.M. & D.M. Briggs. Modern Breeds of Livestock. Fourth Edition. Macmillan Publishing Co. 1980 (reprinted with permission from Dr. Briggs).

Photographs:

American Shorthorn Association, 8288 Hascall Street, Omaha, Nebraska 68124, Phone: (402) 393-7200


Simbrah

The Simbrah Breed

An experiment combining Simmental with Brahman that began in the pastures of a few dedicated cattlemen in the late 1960s has evolved logically into the breed called Simbrah. The Brahman or Zebu, the most numerous cattle type on earth, contributes heat and insect tolerance, hardiness and excellent foraging ability, as well as maternal calving ease and longevity. The Simmental complements these excellent traits with early sexual maturity, fertility, milking ability, rapid growth and good beef characteristics. The very docile disposition of most Simmental is also a plus for this composite. These two cattle breeds have been used in cooperation to produce Simbrah, superior in many ways to the parent breeds.

Simbrah has been described as “The All Purpose American Breed”. Developed in America, Simbrah genetics may be called on to infuse superior maternal traits into a herd. Or, due to their rapid growth, vigor, and heat tolerance, Simbrah may be the answer in a terminal cross program. In the final analysis, Simbrah will produce a lean, high quality beef product.

Originally developed in the hot, humid areas of the Gulf Coast, Simbrah have shown they can Thrive in the Northwest and Northeast regions of the United States where temperatures may range 115 degrees in the summer to 25 degrees below zero in the winter. There is great interest in the breed worldwide. Simbrah are being developed in many areas where Zebu breeding predominates as well as other areas where Simbrah’s unique blend of features is desired.

Breeds of Simbrah know the importance of producing practical cattle with economic advantages. Simbrah have been developed to be as functional and trouble free as possible. Breeders stress structurally sound underlines, i.e. a clean sheath teamed with large scrotal size on the bulls and a well-attached udder with small teats on the cows. Many also put emphasis on pigmented eyes, thick muscling, and reasonable dispositions. Some programs produce polled Simbrah.

Commercial operators appreciate the long and productive life span of Simbrah cattle. Frequently, well beyond 10 years of age, unpampered cows are still weaning heavy calves and bulls are still breeding. This can mean a significant savings in replacement costs for the rancher.

After weaning, most Simbrah calves will perform well if placed directly in the feedlot. At this phase in their lives, they are growing rapidly and will gain very efficiently. They can produce a very desirable carcass at 12-15 months of age.

Enthusiastic Simbrah breeders are utilizing all the tools, animal science and technology available to modern animal breeders. They have a broad genetic base in which to work and a sophisticated evaluation program for performance and progeny information. The Simbrah Registry is kept by the American Simmental Association.
Simmental
A History of the Simmental Breed

The Simmental is among the oldest and most widely distributed of all breeds of cattle in the world. Although the first herd book was established in the Swiss Canton of Berne in 1806, there is evidence of large, productive red and white cattle found much earlier in ecclesiastical and secular property records of western Switzerland. These red and white animals were highly sought because of their “rapid growth development; outstanding production of milk, butter, and cheese; and for their use as draught animals.” they were known for their imposing stature and excellent dairy qualities.

As early as 1785, the Swiss Parliament limited exports because of a shortage of cattle to meet their own needs. The Swiss “Red and White Spotted Simmental Cattle Association” was formed in 1890.

Since its origin in Switzerland, the breed has spread to all six continents. Total numbers are estimated between 40 and 60 million Simmental cattle world-wide. More than half of these are in Europe. The spread was gradual until the late 1960s. Records show that a few animals were exported to Italy as early as the 1400s. During the 19th century, Simmental were distributed through most of Eastern Europe, the Balkans, and Russia, ultimately reaching South Africa in 1895. Guatemala imported the first Simmental into the Western Hemisphere in 1897, with Brazil following suite in 1918 and Argentina in 1922.

There are reports from a variety of sources indicating that Simmental cattle arrived in the United States before the turn of the century. Simmental were reported as early as 1887 in Illinois, according to one source; in 1895 in New Jersey; and in both New York and New Mexico around the 1916 to 1920 period. An ad in an 1896 issue of the Breeder’s Gazette, published in Chicago, also made reference to “Simmenthal” cattle. However, those early imports did not capture the attention of the American cattleman and the Simmental influence died quietly away until the late 1960s.

The breed made its most recent appearance in North America when a Canadian, named Travers Smith, imported the famed bull “Parisien” from France in 1967. Semen was introduced into the United States that same year, with the first half-blood Simmental calf born in February of 1968. The American Simmental Association was formed in October of 1968. Simmental spread to Great Britain, Ireland, and Norway in 1970 and to Sweden and other Northern European countries shortly thereafter. The first purebred bull imported into the United States in 1971 and Australia received Simmental semen and live animals in 1972. The World Simmental Federation was formed in 1974. In 1976 Simmental cattle were shipped to the Peoples’ Republic of China.

The breed is known by a variety of names, including “Fleckvieh” in Germany, Austria and Switzerland as well as many other European countries.”Pie Rouge”, “Montbeliard”, and “Abondance” in France; and “Pezzata Rossa” in Italy. The Simmental name is derived from their original location, the Simme Valley of Switzerland. In German, Thal or Tal means valley, thus the name literally means “Simme Valley”.

The amazing growth of Simmental cattle in North America is really a reflection of what has already occurred in most agricultural countries of the world. Presently, the American Simmental Association registered about 80,000 cattle annually into the Simmental and Simbrah herdbooks. The Association ranks among the top four of the U.S. beef breed associations in annual registrations.

Reference:

American Simmental Association, One Simmental Way, Bozeman, MT 59715.

Photographs:

American Simmental Association, One Simmental Way, Bozeman, MT 59715

Beate Milerski, Theodor-Heuss-Str. 42, D-71735 Eberdingen, e-mail:b.milerski@web.de



Swedish Friesian

Also Known By: Svensk Låglandsboskap, SLB, Black and White Swedish, Swedish Lowland.

The SLB is the second biggest cattle-breed in Sweden. The cows weigh about 600 kg and give about 7900 kg milk in one year. This breed originates from Germany and Holland. The Swedish Friesian are a dairy breed originating from Dutch imports made from 1860 to 1907 and a few select recent importations. They were developed from crossing the imported East Friesian cattle with local breeds. The modern SLB have quite alot of American Holstein in their breeding. This was done to improve the milk production of the breed. SLB is however not very high producing when it comes to meat (and calves), and they are not very resistent against illness.

Reference:

Mason, I.L. 1996. A World Dictionary of Livestock Breeds, Types and Varieties. Fourth Edition. C.A.B International. 273 pp.

Anette Eriksson, Luleå, Sweden

Photographs:
Anette Eriksson, Luleå, Sweden

52 komentar:

Anonim mengatakan...

Good post, adding it to my blog now, thanks. :)

Anonim mengatakan...

This is valuable information , thanks I will try it out! scholarships for hispanics

Anonim mengatakan...

My dad has been writing a book precisely on point with this blog, I have emailed him the web address so perhaps he could pick up a couple pointers. Fantastic Job.

Anonim mengatakan...

Great Info! But I’m having some trouble trying to load your blog. 2011 scholarships

Anonim mengatakan...

Generally I do not post on blogs, but I would like to say that this post really forced me to do so! really nice post. financial help

financial help

Anonim mengatakan...

2003 350 nissan z car oil tanks audi black rims smart fortwo pictures auto bee tumble

Anonim mengatakan...

4689.....38413

Anonim mengatakan...

Hello, I'm new to ekabees.blogspot.com and thought I'de say hello ! I am a local jobs
specialist from the South UK. See you around :) (Soz if this is the wrong place to post)
--------------------
[url=http://www.ashwood.co.uk]account manager jobs[/url]

Anonim mengatakan...

[url=http://www.e45.waw.pl/8564/kalendarze/]kalendarze ksi&#261&#380kowe[/url]

Anonim mengatakan...

QwsJnj [url=http://chaneljponline.org/]シャネル 財布[/url] MdwXtr http://chaneljponline.org/ DfiLcc [url=http://www.coachjpsales.net/]コーチ アウトレット[/url] IbzPkr http://www.coachjpsales.net/ PaoUex [url=http://pradasjapan.net/]プラダ バッグ[/url] VesXqz http://pradasjapan.net/ DxmJga [url=http://coachonsales.org/]コーチ 財布[/url] RclFuh http://coachonsales.org/

Anonim mengatakan...

Hurrah, that's what I was exploring for, what a information! existing here at this blog, thanks admin of this web page.
my site :: borkum riff original

Anonim mengatakan...

I almost never create comments, however after
reading through a lot of comments on this page "Jenis-jenis Ternak Sapi".
I actually do have 2 questions for you if you don't mind. Could it be simply me or do a few of these comments look like they are written by brain dead people? :-P And, if you are writing at additional sites, I'd like to keep up with you.
Could you post a list of all of all your shared pages like
your linkedin profile, Facebook page or twitter feed?
Feel free to surf my page - Erinmore Flake

Anonim mengatakan...

[url=http://hairtyson.com]phentermine 37.5[/url] are tablets that resist slacken up on confederation weight. One of these tabs has to be enchanted with fizzy water be illogical, around 20 minutes already a refection, twice a day.

Anonim mengatakan...

[url=http://www.payloansonline.com]online payday advance[/url]
This is the best way to get all your health products online like green coffee, african mango, phen375 and others. Visit now

[url=http://www.javaworld.com/community/node/8602]unique Hoodia Reviews[/url]

Anonim mengatakan...

simply dropping by to say hi

Anonim mengatakan...

Very shortly this site will be famous amid all blogging and site-building users, due to it's pleasant content

Feel free to visit my website kurse wordpress für anfänger

Anonim mengatakan...

Please let me know if you're looking for a author for your weblog. You have some really great articles and I believe I would be a good asset. If you ever want to take some of the load off, I'd love to write some articles for
your blog in exchange for a link back to mine.
Please shoot me an e-mail if interested. Thank you!


my page ... トリーバーチ店舗

Anonim mengatakan...

Hey There. I found your blog using msn. This is an extremely well
written article. I'll be sure to bookmark it and come back to read more of your useful information. Thanks for the post. I will definitely return.

Visit my blog: raidmycloset.org

Anonim mengatakan...

Hi there, I discovered your blog by way of Google even as looking for a related
subject, your site got here up, it appears to
be like great. I have bookmarked it in my google bookmarks.

Hello there, simply changed into alert to your blog via Google, and located that
it's really informative. I'm gonna watch out for brussels.
I will be grateful if you happen to continue this in future.
Many other folks shall be benefited out of your writing. Cheers!


Here is my blog :: プラダ バッグ

Anonim mengatakan...

Informative article, exactly what I needed.

My page ... モンスター ヘッドホン

Anonim mengatakan...

What's up to every one, since I am genuinely eager of reading this weblog's post to be updated regularly.
It contains fastidious stuff.

My blog: monster beats

Anonim mengatakan...

Hey I know this is off topic but I was wondering if you knew of any widgets I
could add to my blog that automatically tweet my newest
twitter updates. I've been looking for a plug-in like this for quite some time and was hoping maybe you would have some experience with something like this. Please let me know if you run into anything. I truly enjoy reading your blog and I look forward to your new updates.

My web blog; ジョーダン

Anonim mengatakan...

When I initially commented I appear to have clicked the -Notify me when new comments are added-
checkbox and now every time a comment is added I get 4 emails with the same comment.
Is there a means you can remove me from that service? Thanks!



Here is my web blog ... トリーバーチ靴

Anonim mengatakan...

Awesome blog! Do you have any tips and hints for aspiring writers?
I'm planning to start my own website soon but I'm a little lost on
everything. Would you propose starting with a free platform like
Wordpress or go for a paid option? There are so many options out there that I'm completely overwhelmed .. Any suggestions? Thanks!

my weblog; miu miu 店舗

Anonim mengatakan...

Tremendous things here. I am very satisfied to peer your article.
Thank you so much and I'm taking a look ahead to touch you. Will you kindly drop me a e-mail?

Here is my homepage トリーバーチ店舗

Anonim mengatakan...

whoah this weblog is fantastic i like reading your articles.
Stay up the great work! You understand, many individuals are hunting
round for this info, you can help them greatly.

Also visit my web-site - ミュウミュウ財布

Anonim mengatakan...

Please let me know if you're looking for a article writer for your site. You have some really great posts and I feel I would be a good asset. If you ever want to take some of the load off, I'd love to write some content for your blog in exchange for a link back to mine.
Please blast me an email if interested. Regards!

Also visit my blog ... ミュウミュウ店舗

Anonim mengatakan...

My brother suggested I may like this website. He used
to be totally right. This publish truly made my day.
You cann't imagine simply how so much time I had spent for this info! Thank you!

Feel free to visit my weblog ... トリーバーチ通販

Anonim mengatakan...

Hello colleagues, its great piece of writing about tutoringand entirely explained, keep it up
all the time.

Feel free to visit my web page; ミュウミュウ店舗

Anonim mengatakan...

I'm extremely impressed with your writing skills and also with the layout on your blog. Is this a paid theme or did you customize it yourself? Anyway keep up the nice quality writing, it's rare to see a great blog like
this one today.

My webpage: http://www.toryburchoutletshopx.com

Anonim mengatakan...

Hi there, for all time i used to check webpage posts here early in the
morning, because i enjoy to learn more and more.



My homepage: miu miu 財布

Anonim mengatakan...

これらはから選択することが
私達のために異なるデザインの
全体のホストを持っているオンラ
イン卸売レプリカのハンドバッグの店から購入するこ
とができます

Look at my webpage :: ミュウミュウ 新作

Anonim mengatakan...

excellent issues altogether, you just received a brand new reader.
What may you suggest about your submit that you made
a few days ago? Any sure?

Feel free to surf to my web-site ... クロエ財布

Anonim mengatakan...

Keep this going please, great job!

my web site :: クロエ店舗

Anonim mengatakan...

Why users still make use of to read news papers when in this technological
world everything is accessible on net?

my weblog; トリーバーチ アウトレット

Anonim mengatakan...

。実際のマネー
ジャは、最大実際
のランプの作品は、いずれCELも点灯して
いることを認識しているこ
とを確認するには瞬
間点火主は実
際に元のジョブを取得します。一度電気モーター
が稼働される可能
性があり、光が外に起こっ
ている

my web blog coach 財布

Anonim mengatakan...

これはいくつかの選択
肢を医師処方眼鏡の特定の着用を残す

Have a look at my website :: ミュウミュウ

Anonim mengatakan...

If you are going for best contents like I do, just visit this website everyday for the
reason that it provides feature contents, thanks

Here is my web site ... ロレックスレプリカ

Anonim mengatakan...

Incredible story there. What happened after? Good luck!


Have a look at my weblog ... chloe バッグ

Anonim mengatakan...

all the time i used to read smaller posts which also clear their motive,
and that is also happening with this post which I am reading now.


Feel free to visit my page - コーチ 財布

Anonim mengatakan...

you're in reality a excellent webmaster. The site loading velocity is amazing. It kind of feels that you are doing any unique trick. Furthermore, The contents are masterpiece. you have performed a excellent activity on this matter!

Here is my blog サングラス オークリー

Anonim mengatakan...

What's up, this weekend is nice for me, for the reason that this moment i am reading this fantastic informative post here at my house.

My web site ... クロエ財布

Anonim mengatakan...

Excellent article. I absolutely love this site. Continue the
good work!

My web site ルブタン靴

Anonim mengatakan...

I do not know whether it's just me or if perhaps everyone else experiencing issues with your site. It appears as though some of the text within your posts are running off the screen. Can somebody else please provide feedback and let me know if this is happening to them as well? This may be a problem with my web browser because I've
had this happen previously. Cheers

My web blog: レイバンサングラス

Anonim mengatakan...

I do consider all of the ideas you've presented on your post. They are very convincing and will definitely work. Still, the posts are very quick for newbies. Could you please lengthen them a little from subsequent time? Thanks for the post.

Here is my weblog: monster beats

Anonim mengatakan...

I am no longer certain where you are getting your info,
however great topic. I must spend some time studying more
or working out more. Thank you for wonderful info I was on the lookout for
this information for my mission.

my web site - http://www.oakleysunglassesoutletsale.com/

Anonim mengatakan...

It's going to be ending of mine day, but before ending I am reading this great post to increase my know-how.

My page; monster beats

Anonim mengatakan...

Heya i am for the primary time here. I came across this board and I
to find It truly helpful & it helped me out much.
I hope to present one thing again and aid others like you
helped me.

My blog /blog/4576481602/̘ȧ¤餷¤¤¥ե£¥åȤɕ�¯¥ꥹ¥e㦳¤̭Louboutin¤˥֥馃¥¯-¥֩`¥¯5697358

Anonim mengatakan...

Hi there to all, how is the whole thing, I think every one is getting more from this website, and your views are good for new
people.

Feel free to surf to my website ... ミュウミュウバッグ

Anonim mengatakan...

I got this site from my buddy who informed me regarding this web
site and now this time I am browsing this website and reading very informative
content at this time.

Also visit my webpage :: www.southernballoonworks.com

Anonim mengatakan...

My programmer is trying to convince me to move to .
net from PHP. I have always disliked the idea because of the costs.

But he's tryiong none the less. I've been using WordPress on
numerous websites for about a year and am worried about switching to another platform.
I have heard good things about blogengine.net. Is there a way I
can import all my wordpress posts into it? Any kind of help would be greatly appreciated!


Feel free to visit my website http://lifeisfashionable.blogspot.fr/

Anonim mengatakan...

ecigs, electronic cigarette, electronic cigarettes, electronic cigarette, electronic cigarettes, smokeless cigarettes

Mengenai Saya

Foto saya
keberadaan saya didunia ... bagi saya adalah keberkahan yang sangat besar .. anugerah tiada tara .. dunia peternakan menjadi salah satu tempat terindah yang saat ini saya selami ... sedikit yang saya dapat berikan saat ini ... sedikit yang dapat saya abdikan saat ini ...

COWMANIA

COWMANIA